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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Reading Frames

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Disease relevance of Reading Frames


High impact information on Reading Frames

  • Pre B-I cells carrying DHJH-rearrangements in reading frame (rf) II are counter-selected, probably because they can express an Ig-like complex of truncated DHJHC mu-protein and surrogate L chain, while pre B-I cells DHJH-rearranged in rf I or III are not suppressed [6].
  • Tumor suppression at the mouse INK4a locus mediated by the alternative reading frame product p19ARF [7].
  • We now show that a homozygous mutation in the delta SG gene (a single nucleotide deletion that alters its reading frame) is the cause of LGMD2F [8].
  • Deletion of a cytidine residue about 570 nt downstream of the translation initiation codon in cho alpha 1 (XI) mRNA causes a reading frame shift and introduces a premature stop codon [9].
  • The exon 5- variant represents up to 40% of mRNA in all CFTR-expressing tissues and leaves the reading frame intact [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Reading Frames


Biological context of Reading Frames

  • These signal sequences are localized near the exon-intron boundaries (box1), or quite distant from the splicing sites, either in the blocked reading frame (box2) or in the open reading frame (box9) of the intron [16].
  • Nucleotide sequencing has demonstrated that the Small genome segment of Bunyaviruses contains the genetic information for two viral proteins (N and NSs) in overlapping reading frames (Akashi and Bishop, 1983; Cabradilla et al., in press) [17].
  • Our tRNA overproduction data suggest that a leucyl-tRNA, probably tRNA(UAGLeu), an unusual leucine isoacceptor that recognizes all six leucine codons, slips from CUU-Leu onto UUA-Leu (in the +1 reading frame) during a translational pause at the AGG-Arg codon induced by the low availability of tRNA(CCUArg), encoded by a single-copy essential gene [18].
  • PMS-1 is localized within a 521 bp region upstream of the BPV-1 early transcription unit; PMS-2 has been localized to a 140 bp region within the putative reading frame for the E1 protein of the viral genome [19].
  • For example, an X-linked processed pseudogene of PGK-1 (psi PGK-1) in humans has been identified and shown to contain premature termination codons in all reading frames [20].

Anatomical context of Reading Frames


Associations of Reading Frames with chemical compounds


Gene context of Reading Frames

  • POL2 expressed a transcript of approximately 7.5 kb and contained a reading frame that encoded a protein of calculated Mr 255,649 [31].
  • The two distinct proteins encoded by the CDKN2A locus are specified by translating the common second exon in alternative reading frames [32].
  • The aI4 alpha reading frame is a member of a large gene family recognized by the presence of related dodecapeptide sequence motifs called P1 and P2 [33].
  • In order to determine the function of this reading frame we have constructed a knockout allele for ycf6 [34].
  • We propose that this unfolding of the psbH leader segment as a result of RNA processing is essential for the translation of the psbH reading frame [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Reading Frames

  • Protein sequence analysis of intact L-CAM and of cyanogen bromide fragments of the protein confirmed the reading frame and indicated that lambda L320 encodes the complete sequence of L-CAM as it is expressed on the cell surface as well as the bulk of the precursor [36].
  • Sequence analysis of a cDNA clone for bovine retinal phosducin confirmed that the MEKA clone deviation resulted from an unidentified cDNA guanosine nucleotide, a shifted reading frame and a premature stop codon [37].
  • By polymerase chain reaction-aided site-directed mutagenesis, both the proteins have been shown to be encoded by the same reading frame of the clpB gene, the 93-kDa protein (ClpB93) from the 5'-end AUG translational initiation site and the 79-kDa protein (ClpB79) from the 149th codon (an internal GUG start site) [38].
  • A mutation in the initiation codon and frameshift mutations, which revert by restoration of the reading frame, established the coding role of the exon and mutations affecting intron splicing in conjunction with DNA sequencing of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products localized the coding region intron [39].
  • The three mitochondrion-encoded suppressors were localized to the oli1 region of mtDNA using rho- genetic mapping techniques coupled with PCR analysis; DNA sequencing revealed, in each case, a T-to-C nucleotide transition in mtDNA 16 nucleotides upstream of the oli1 reading frame [40].


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  15. Catabolite repression of the operon for xylose utilization from Bacillus subtilis W23 is mediated at the level of transcription and depends on a cis site in the xylA reading frame. Jacob, S., Allmansberger, R., Gärtner, D., Hillen, W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Critical sequences within mitochondrial introns: pleiotropic mRNA maturase and cis-dominant signals of the box intron controlling reductase and oxidase. De La Salle, H., Jacq, C., Slonimski, P.P. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Multiple leader RNAs and messenger RNAs are transcribed from the La Crosse virus small genome segment. Patterson, J.L., Cabradilla, C., Holloway, B.P., Obijeski, J.F., Kolakofsky, D. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
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