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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Studies on the antimutagenesis of Phyllanthus orbicularis: mechanisms involved against aromatic amines.

Phyllanthus orbicularis is a medicinal plant, endemic to Cuba, whose aqueous extract has proven antiviral properties. This plant extract is being studied for treatment of viral diseases in animals and humans. Antimutagenic activities of this plant aqueous extract have been investigated as an additional and possible valuable property. Antimutagenesis was assayed against the mutagenic activity of m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 9-aminophenantrene (9-AP) in Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) YG1024, in different co-treatment approaches. This plant extract produced a significant decrease of the mutagenesis mediated by these aromatic amines (AA) in the following order: m-PDA>2-AA>2-AF>9-AP>1-AP. Interactions with S9 enzymes and transformation of promutagenic amines and their mutagenic metabolites by chemical reactions to non-mutagenic compounds are proposed as possible mechanisms of antimutagenesis. Mutagenesis mediated by m-PDA was almost completely abolished when S9 mixture was co-incubated with the plant extract during 40 min, previous to the addition of the m-PDA and bacterial cells to the assay. Similar results were found with 2-AA and 1-AP, but the reduction of the mutation rate was not so dramatic. In contrast, the most significant antimutagenic effect against 2-AF and 9-AP was seen when these chemicals were co-incubated with the plant extract, before addition of the S9 mixture and bacterial cells to the assay. Therefore, inhibition or competition for S9 enzymes seems to be the main antimutagenic mechanism of this plant extract against m-PDA, 2-AA and 1-AP, whilst a chemical modification of 2-AF and 9-AP into non-promutagenic derivatives is likely to be the main mechanism of antimutagenesis against both compounds.[1]


  1. Studies on the antimutagenesis of Phyllanthus orbicularis: mechanisms involved against aromatic amines. Ferrer, M., Sánchez-Lamar, A., Fuentes, J.L., Barbé, J., Llagostera, M. Mutat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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