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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pontiac fever due to Legionella micdadei from a whirlpool spa: possible role of bacterial endotoxin.

During January 1998, a cluster of illnesses occurred among hotel guests in Wisconsin. Ill persons had been exposed to the hotel's whirlpool spa and swimming pool. Symptoms included headache, fever, chills, myalgia, shortness of breath, and fatigue. A diagnosis of Pontiac fever was made, based on serologic evidence of acute infection with Legionella micdadei. High concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were recovered from the spa, despite apparently high disinfectant levels. L. micdadei was isolated from the swimming pool filter and water from the spa after heat enrichment but not from pools and spas at nearby hotels. Water from hotel pools and spas was tested to determine endotoxin levels; water from the spa of the implicated hotel contained the highest concentration of endotoxin (14,400 endotoxin units/mL). Additional studies are needed to determine the role of endotoxin from legionellae or other bacteria in the pathogenesis of Pontiac fever.[1]


  1. Pontiac fever due to Legionella micdadei from a whirlpool spa: possible role of bacterial endotoxin. Fields, B.S., Haupt, T., Davis, J.P., Arduino, M.J., Miller, P.H., Butler, J.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
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