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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Swimming Pools

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Disease relevance of Swimming Pools


High impact information on Swimming Pools

  • Subsequent investigation revealed that air conditioning units drew carbon monoxide from the gas heaters for the motel's indoor swimming pools into three adjacent guest rooms through structural defects in the walls [5].
  • Inter alia, the resulting method is highly sensitive, almost free from interferences, and was easily applied to the determination of cyanuric acid in swimming pool water, surface water, human urine, and simulated air filter samples [6].
  • L. micdadei was isolated from the swimming pool filter and water from the spa after heat enrichment but not from pools and spas at nearby hotels [7].
  • HPLC determination of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters using phenyl and confirmatory porous graphitic carbon columns [8].
  • Bromine-based sanitizing agents and other chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, which were used in excess in the motel's swimming pool, may have accounted for symptoms experienced by the boy reported here and at least 16 other adolescents [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Swimming Pools

  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an extremely rare fungal mastoiditis caused by Lecythophora hoffmannii, its recalcitrant behavior to therapy, and eventual successful treatment with adjunctive therapy using polyhexamethylene biguanide (a common swimming pool biocide) [2].

Biological context of Swimming Pools

  • The presence of chloroform as the result of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was demonstrated in the water and ambient air of indoor swimming pools [10].
  • The purpose of this study was to measure, in swimming pool conditions and with high level swimmers, the time to exhaustion at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption (TLim at vVO(2)max), and the corresponding VO(2) slow component (O(2)SC) [11].
  • In addition to industrial production and usage, chlorophenols are produced from naturally occurring phenols as a result of chlorine bleaching of wood pulp in the paper industry and through the chlorination of domestic water supplies and swimming pools [12].
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the kinetics of heart rate and blood lactate level obtained after repeated short breath holds with muscular effort in a swimming pool [13].

Associations of Swimming Pools with chemical compounds

  • Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water [14].
  • Diazepam also slowed eating speed, blocked "dodging", a movement used to initiate hoarding, and impaired spatial navigation in a learning-set swimming pool task [15].
  • In a series of experiments, rats received the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801 and measures were made of motor behavior, spatial navigation in a swimming pool, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity [16].
  • Swimming-pool asthma due to airborne nitrogen trichloride can occur in workers who do not enter the water because of this chloramine [17].
  • The effectiveness of the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide in the swimming pool, a specifically spatial task, suggests that the opposing concepts of 'spatial memory' and 'anxiety' which have been used previously to describe hippocampal function may represent different aspects of a unitary concept [18].

Gene context of Swimming Pools

  • Health effects of attending a public swimming pool: follow up of a cohort of pupils in Paris [19].
  • A patient with an ICD received therapies from his ICD while exercising in an indoor swimming pool [20].
  • Local swimming pool and G-6-PD deficiency [21].
  • The results for HPV DNA amplification were confirmed by Southern blot hybridization under low stringency using a probe mixture of HPV types 6, 16, 18 and 31. beta-globin could be amplified only from 3 sample taken from a dressing room of and indoor public swimming pool [22].
  • Monitoring was carried out during summer 2000 in all the swimming pools in the West Bank of Palestine. Fifty-eight water samples, collected from 46 swimming pools, were examined for Coliforms and bacterial species including Streptococci, Salmonellae, and Staphylococcus [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Swimming Pools


  1. Pseudomonas infections associated with hot tubs and other environments. Gregory, D.W., Schaffner, W. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Novel use of a swimming pool biocide in the treatment of a rare fungal mastoiditis. Chang, C.Y., Schell, W.A., Perfect, J.R., Hulka, G.F. Laryngoscope (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of pre-incubation in non-selective medium in recovery of Staphylococcus aureus from swimming pools and beaches. Salamah, A.A. Microbiologica (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of Mycobacterium marinum 65 kD heat shock protein gene by polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis from lesions of swimming pool granuloma. Cai, L., Chen, X., Zhao, T., Ding, B.C., Zhang, J.Z. Chin. Med. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning at a motel. Wharton, M., Bistowish, J.M., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Cyanuric acid trace analysis by extractive methylation via phase-transfer catalysis and capillary gas chromatography coupled with flame thermoionic and mass-selective detection. Process parameter studies and kinetics. Fiamegos, Y.C., Konidari, C.N., Stalikas, C.D. Anal. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Pontiac fever due to Legionella micdadei from a whirlpool spa: possible role of bacterial endotoxin. Fields, B.S., Haupt, T., Davis, J.P., Arduino, M.J., Miller, P.H., Butler, J.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. HPLC determination of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters using phenyl and confirmatory porous graphitic carbon columns. Cantú, R., Evans, O., Kawahara, F.K., Wymer, L.J., Dufour, A.P. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Reactive airways dysfunction and systemic complaints after mass exposure to bromine. Woolf, A., Shannon, M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools. Aggazzotti, G., Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., Predieri, G. Journal of chromatography. A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Time limit and VO2 slow component at intensities corresponding to VO2max in swimmers. Fernandes, R.J., Cardoso, C.S., Soares, S.M., Ascensão, A., Colaço, P.J., Vilas-Boas, J.P. International journal of sports medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Chlorophenols in the terrestrial environment. Jensen, J. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Heart rate variation after breath hold diving with different underwater swimming velocities. Delapille, P., Verin, E., Tourny Chollet, C., Pasquis, P. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water. Beech, J.A., Diaz, R., Ordaz, C., Palomeque, B. American journal of public health. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Blockade of hoarding in rats by diazepam: an analysis of the anxiety and object value hypotheses of hoarding. McNamara, R.K., Whishaw, I.Q. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Immediate and long-lasting effects of MK-801 on motor activity, spatial navigation in a swimming pool and EEG in the rat. Whishaw, I.Q., Auer, R.N. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Occupational asthma caused by chloramines in indoor swimming-pool air. Thickett, K.M., McCoach, J.S., Gerber, J.M., Sadhra, S., Burge, P.S. Eur. Respir. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Chlordiazepoxide, an anxiolytic benzodiazepine, impairs place navigation in rats. McNaughton, N., Morris, R.G. Behav. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Health effects of attending a public swimming pool: follow up of a cohort of pupils in Paris. Momas, I., Brette, F., Spinasse, A., Squinazi, F., Dab, W., Festy, B. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Inadvertent detection of 60-Hz alternating current by an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Lee, S.W., Moak, J.P., Lewis, B. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Local swimming pool and G-6-PD deficiency. Ong, S.J., Kearney, B. Med. J. Aust. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Transmission of genital human papillomavirus infections is unlikely through the floor and seats of humid dwellings in countries of high-level hygiene. Puranen, M., Syrjänen, K., Syrjänen, S. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Bacteriological and chemical quality of swimming pools water in developing countries: a case study in the West Bank of Palestine. Al-Khatib, I.A., Salah, S. International journal of environmental health research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Detection of Microsporidia, cryptosporidia and Giardia in swimming pools: a one-year prospective study. Fournier, S., Dubrou, S., Liguory, O., Gaussin, F., Santillana-Hayat, M., Sarfati, C., Molina, J.M., Derouin, F. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in recreational and hydrotherapy pools. Moore, J.E., Heaney, N., Millar, B.C., Crowe, M., Elborn, J.S. Communicable disease and public health / PHLS. (2002) [Pubmed]
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