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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Andrographolide prevents oxygen radical production by human neutrophils: possible mechanism(s) involved in its anti-inflammatory effect.

We have reported that andrographolide (ANDRO), an active component of Andrographis paniculata, inhibits inflammatory responses by rat neutrophils. To further elucidate the possible mechanism(s) underlying the ANDRO's effect, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced adhesion and transmigration of isolated peripheral human neutrophils were studied. Pretreatment with ANDRO (0.1 - 10 microM) concentration-dependently prevented fMLP-induced neutrophil adhesion and transmigration. We further examined the up-expression of surface Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), an essential integrin mediated in neutrophil adhesion and transmigration. ANDRO pretreatment significantly decreased fMLP-induced up-expression of both CD11b and CD18. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as quick intracellular calcium ([Ca(++)](i)) mobilization induced by fMLP displays two important signalling pathways in regulating the up-expression of Mac-1 by neutrophils. That ANDRO pretreatment diminished fMLP-induced production of H(2)O(2) and O(2)*(-), but failed to block that of [Ca(++)](i) mobilization suggested that the ROS but not [Ca(++)](i) signalling could be modulated by ANDRO. To clarify whether ROS production impeded by ANDRO could be an antagonism of fMLP binding, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a direct protein kinase C (PKC) activator, was introduced to activate ROS production. PMA triggered remarkable ROS production and adhesion, and were partially reversed by ANDRO. This indicated that a PKC-dependent mechanism might be interfered by ANDRO. We conclude that the prevention of ROS production through, at least in part, modulation of PKC-dependent pathway could confer ANDRO the ability to down-regulate Mac-1 up-expression that is essential for neutrophil adhesion and transmigration.[1]


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