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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Circulating cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma in pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

This study evaluated the time course of systemic cytokine concentrations in an acute model of pneumonia in pigs challenged intranasally with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Feed intake and serum cortisol were measured as overt clinical and systemic markers of disease onset, respectively, and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma as representative systemic inflammatory markers. Crossbred barrows (n = 15), approximately 5 wk of age, were used in the study. Pigs were housed in an environmentally controlled facility at 25 degrees C and under continuous illumination in pens measuring approximately 1.5 m2. Pigs had free access to water and an unmedicated diet. Approximately 1 wk prior to disease challenge, pigs were fitted nonsurgically with venous catheters. At challenge, pigs were given 5 x 10(8) CFU Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae intranasally (n = 8) or a similar volume of sterile growth media intranasally (Control; n = 7). Feed intake was estimated by the change in feeder weight at 12-h intervals from -12 to 72 h relative to the time of disease challenge. Blood sampling began 12 h prior to challenge and continued until 72 h after challenge. Pigs were sampled at -12, -6, and 0 h, then at 90-min intervals until 12-h post-challenge, continuing at 3-h intervals until 24-h post-challenge, then again at 6-h intervals until 72 h after challenge. Serum was harvested and frozen until assayed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma. Feed intake was reduced in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pigs during the intervals 0 to 12 h (P < 0.001), 24 to 36 h (P < 0.001), 48 to 60 h (P <0.05), and 60 to 72 h (P < 0.05). TheActnobacillus pleuropneumoniae-challenged pigs had elevated serum cortisol from 180-min to 18-h post-challenge (P < 0.001) and also at 36 (P < 0.05), 42 (P < 0.001), and 60 (P < 0.05) h following infection. Circulating cytokines were not affected by disease challenge. Thus, in this experimental model of pneumonia, weaned pigs demonstrated expected behavioral and endocrine characteristics of disease in the absence of significant changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines.[1]


  1. Circulating cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma in pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Balaji, R., Wright, K.J., Turner, J.L., Hill, C.M., Dritz, S.S., Fenwick, B., Carrollt, J.A., Zannelli, M.E., Beausang, L.A., Minton, J.E. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
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