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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Increased sensitivity of T lymphocytes to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)- and TNFR2-mediated apoptosis in HIV infection: relation to expression of Bcl-2 and active caspase-8 and caspase-3.

The destruction of CD4 T cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with activation of apoptotic programs, partly mediated by death receptors. The role of CD95L/ CD95 in depletion of patients' CD4 T cells is well documented, but the possible contribution of the tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF/TNFR) pathway has not been examined. In this study, we found that both TNFR1 and TNFR2 induced marked apoptosis in peripheral T cells from HIV-infected persons, involving both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Longitudinal follow-up of HIV(+) patients suggests an association between the in vivo evolution of CD4 T-cell numbers and variations in susceptibility to TNFR-induced apoptosis. Analysis of molecular mechanisms involved showed that it was not related to altered ex vivo expression of TNFR1-associated death domain, receptor interacting protein, or TNFR-associated factor 2. Susceptibility to TNFR-mediated apoptosis was rather related to Bcl-2 expression, because patients' T cells expressing high levels of Bcl-2 were completely protected from TNFR1- and TNFR2-induced cell death, whereas T cells expressing normal levels of Bcl-2 were not protected in patients in contrast to controls. Early recruitment of caspase-8 and caspase-3 is needed to transduce the apoptotic signals, and expression of both caspases in their active form was detected in blood T cells from HIV(+) patients, whereas it was hardly detected in controls. Moreover, ligation of TNFRs induced increased activation of both caspases in patients' T cells. Together these data demonstrate that exacerbated TNFR-mediated cell death of T cells from HIV-infected individuals is associated with both alteration of Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and may contribute to the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.[1]


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