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Gene Review

TNF  -  tumor necrosis factor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cachectin, DIF, TNF-a, TNF-alpha, TNFA, ...
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Disease relevance of TNF

  • Transgenic mice carrying 3'-modified hTNF transgenes show deregulated patterns of expression and interestingly develop chronic inflammatory polyarthritis. Treatment of these arthritic mice with a monoclonal antibody against human TNF completely prevents development of this disease. These results indicate a direct involvement of TNF in the pathogenesis of arthritis [1].
  • CD30 is a surface marker for neoplastic cells of Hodgkin's lymphoma and shows sequence homology to members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily [2].
  • Under the appropriate conditions, such human TNF mutants are expected to induce less systemic toxicity in man, while still exerting their direct antitumour effect [3].
  • Unexpectedly, when both TNFRs were activated simultaneously by agonistic antibodies or coculture with cells expressing a noncleavable membrane form of TNF, HIV production was downregulated and induction of cell death was enhanced in ACH-2 cells [4].
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that play a central role in regulating HIV-1 replication [4].
  • Passive immunization with anti-TNF-alpha/beta-neutralizing monoclonal antibody also conferred protection, indicating that it is TNF which is critical for initiating toxic shock symptoms [5].
  • This review discusses the role of TNF-alpha as a pathogenic factor in renal injury, focusing on diabetic nephropathy, and describes potential treatment strategies based on modulation of TNF-alpha activity [6].
  • Anti-TNF therapy with etanercept is not superior to that with methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid cachexia over a period of 6 mo [7].
  • By the late 1980s excess TNF production was proposed to be central to acute systemic viral diseases [8].
  • TNF antagonist-induced psoriasis is a newly recognized adverse effect of these medications that typically does not require therapy cessation [9].

Psychiatry related information on TNF

  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years [10].
  • BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Polymorphisms of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, are associated with individual differences in gastric mucosal inflammation and acid inhibition in response to Helicobacter pylori infection [11].
  • The role of TNF and its receptors in Alzheimer's disease [12].
  • Within the 24 h TNF declined significantly in the therapy group (p = 0.006), while IL-6 showed a significant increase (p = 0.043) [13].
  • Brain levels of IL-1 and TNF correlate with sleep propensity; for example, after sleep deprivation, their levels increase [14].

High impact information on TNF

  • Disruption of the LT/TNF/LIGHT network alleviates inflammation in certain autoimmune disease models, but decreases resistance to selected pathogens [15].
  • Randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trials of human TNF alpha inhibitors have demonstrated their consistent and remarkable efficacy in controlling signs and symptoms, with a favorable safety profile, in approximately two thirds of patients for up to 2 years, and their ability to retard joint damage [16].
  • The last four years have seen a proliferation in knowledge of the proteins participating in the signaling by the TNF system and CD95 [17].
  • However, the molecules that initiate these signaling events, including the death domain- and TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain-containing adapter proteins and the signaling enzymes associated with them, are largely unique to the TNF/nerve growth factor receptor family [17].
  • Active antigen-driven death is mediated by the expression of death cytokines such as FasL and TNF [18].

Chemical compound and disease context of TNF


Biological context of TNF

  • Most importantly, JNK activation is not involved in induction of apoptosis, while activation of NF-kappaB protects against TNF-induced apoptosis [25].
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that induces conflicting pro- and antiapoptotic signals whose relative strengths determine the extent of cell death [26].
  • Through its type 1 receptor (TNFR1), the cytokine TNF elicits an unusually wide range of biological responses, including inflammation, tumor necrosis, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis [25].
  • TRAF proteins are major mediators for the cell activation, cell survival, and antiapoptotic functions of the TNF receptor superfamily [27].
  • A human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding protein from serum of cancer patients was purified to homogeneity and partially sequenced [28].

Anatomical context of TNF

  • The response of human epithelial cells to TNF involves an inducible autocrine cascade [26].
  • We show here that the transmembrane form of TNF is superior to soluble TNF in activating TNFR80 in various systems such as T cell activation, thymocyte proliferation, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor production [29].
  • The TNF-R2-/- mice show normal T-cell development and activity, but we find that they have increased resistance to TNF-induced death [30].
  • Our results indicate that there is a single class of specific high-affinity receptors for TNF on this cell line which has a Kd of about 0.2 nM and an average of 2,000 receptor sites per cell [31].
  • Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock [32].

Associations of TNF with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TNF

  • Human embryonic kidney cells transfected with a TNF-R expression vector specifically bind both 125I-labeled and biotinylated TNF-alpha [28].
  • Identification of Grb2 as a novel binding partner of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor I [37].
  • Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity by the addition of TNF-binding protein reduced IL-18-stimulated HIV-1 production by 48% [38].
  • The TNF-alpha mediated transcriptional activation of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmid containing three copies of the -72 kappa B binding site from the IL-6 promoter was abrogated by PDTC [39].
  • GM2 and GM3 each inhibited Ig production, thymidine uptake, and TNF-alpha production by surface IgG1+ (slG1+), sIgG2+, sIgG3+, sIgG4+, and sIgM+ B cells without affecting IL-2 binding or TNF-alpha binding to B cells, but had no such inhibitory effects on sIgA1+ or sIgA2+ B cells [40].

Enzymatic interactions of TNF


Regulatory relationships of TNF


Other interactions of TNF

  • However, this upregulation in homeostatic regulatory mechanisms is not sufficient as these are unable to neutralize all the TNF alpha and IL-1 produced [56].
  • These observations raise the possibility that a surface LT alpha-LT beta complex may have a specific role in immune regulation distinct from the functions ascribed to TNF [57].
  • They can be recruited to activated TNF receptors either by direct interactions with the receptors or indirectly via the adaptor protein TRADD [27].
  • Here we describe human TNF mutants that sill interact with the human TNF-R55 receptor but which have largely lost their ability to bind to human TNF-R75 [3].
  • These findings identify a physiologic role for c-IAP1 and define a mechanism by which TNF-RII-regulated ubiquitin protein ligase activity can potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis [58].
  • The TNF-alpha polymorphism might be a disease-modifying gene in asthma and modulated by the CD14 gene [59].
  • Knockdown of CARP-2 stabilized TNFR1-associated polyubiquitinated RIP levels after TNF simulation and enhanced activation of NF-kappaB [60].
  • No TNF/LTA polymorphisms were found to be associated with SM in cohorts in Kenya and Malawi. It has been suggested that the causal polymorphisms regulating the TNF and LTA responses may be located some distance from the genes [61].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNF




  1. Transgenic mice expressing human tumour necrosis factor: a predictive genetic model of arthritis. Keffer, J., Probert, L., Cazlaris, H., Georgopoulos, S., Kaslaris, E., Kioussis, D., Kollias, G. EMBO. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. CD30 antigen, a marker for Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a receptor whose ligand defines an emerging family of cytokines with homology to TNF. Smith, C.A., Gruss, H.J., Davis, T., Anderson, D., Farrah, T., Baker, E., Sutherland, G.R., Brannan, C.I., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Human TNF mutants with selective activity on the p55 receptor. Van Ostade, X., Vandenabeele, P., Everaerdt, B., Loetscher, H., Gentz, R., Brockhaus, M., Lesslauer, W., Tavernier, J., Brouckaert, P., Fiers, W. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Membrane tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced cooperative signaling of TNFR60 and TNFR80 favors induction of cell death rather than virus production in HIV-infected T cells. Lazdins, J.K., Grell, M., Walker, M.R., Woods-Cook, K., Scheurich, P., Pfizenmaier, K. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. T cell-mediated lethal shock triggered in mice by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: critical role of tumor necrosis factor. Miethke, T., Wahl, C., Heeg, K., Echtenacher, B., Krammer, P.H., Wagner, H. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of TNF-alpha in diabetic nephropathy: pathogenic and therapeutic implications. Navarro, J.F., Mora-Fernández, C. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Randomized phase 2 trial of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy for cachexia in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Marcora, S.M., Chester, K.R., Mittal, G., Lemmey, A.B., Maddison, P.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. How TNF was recognized as a key mechanism of disease. Clark, I.A. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy: a literature review and potential mechanisms of action. Collamer, A.N., Guerrero, K.T., Henning, J.S., Battafarano, D.F. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  10. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians. Bruunsgaard, H., Andersen-Ranberg, K., Hjelmborg, J.B., Pedersen, B.K., Jeune, B. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Influences of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms on eradication rates of clarithromycin-sensitive strains of Helicobacter pylori by triple therapy. Sugimoto, M., Furuta, T., Shirai, N., Ikuma, M., Hishida, A., Ishizaki, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of TNF and its receptors in Alzheimer's disease. Perry, R.T., Collins, J.S., Wiener, H., Acton, R., Go, R.C. Neurobiol. Aging (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of pentoxifylline on cytokine levels and inflammatory parameters in septic shock. Staudinger, T., Presterl, E., Graninger, W., Locker, G.J., Knapp, S., Laczika, K., Klappacher, G., Stoiser, B., Wagner, A., Tesinsky, P., Kordova, H., Frass, M. Intensive care medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. The role of cytokines in physiological sleep regulation. Krueger, J.M., Obál, F.J., Fang, J., Kubota, T., Taishi, P. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Network communications: lymphotoxins, LIGHT, and TNF. Ware, C.F. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Anti-TNF alpha therapy of rheumatoid arthritis: what have we learned? Feldmann, M., Maini, R.N. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Tumor necrosis factor receptor and Fas signaling mechanisms. Wallach, D., Varfolomeev, E.E., Malinin, N.L., Goltsev, Y.V., Kovalenko, A.V., Boldin, M.P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Mature T lymphocyte apoptosis--immune regulation in a dynamic and unpredictable antigenic environment. Lenardo, M., Chan, K.M., Hornung, F., McFarland, H., Siegel, R., Wang, J., Zheng, L. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of tumor necrosis factor gene polymorphisms on patients with congestive heart failure. VEST Investigators for TNF Genotype Analysis. Vesnarinone Survival Trial. Kubota, T., McNamara, D.M., Wang, J.J., Trost, M., McTiernan, C.F., Mann, D.L., Feldman, A.M. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Retinoids downregulate both p60 and p80 forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors in human histiocytic lymphoma U-937 cells. Totpal, K., Chaturvedi, M.M., LaPushin, R., Aggarwal, B.B. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Jun kinase modulates tumor necrosis factor-dependent apoptosis in liver cells. Liedtke, C., Plümpe, J., Kubicka, S., Bradham, C.A., Manns, M.P., Brenner, D.A., Trautwein, C. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Cytokine levels and systemic toxicity in patients undergoing isolated limb perfusion with high-dose tumor necrosis factor, interferon gamma, and melphalan. Thom, A.K., Alexander, H.R., Andrich, M.P., Barker, W.C., Rosenberg, S.A., Fraker, D.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Resistance to TNF-alpha and adriamycin in the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line: relationship to MDR1, MnSOD, and TNF gene expression. Zyad, A., Bénard, J., Tursz, T., Clarke, R., Chouaib, S. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Associations between insulin resistance and TNF-alpha in plasma, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans with and without type 2 diabetes. Plomgaard, P., Nielsen, A.R., Fischer, C.P., Mortensen, O.H., Broholm, C., Penkowa, M., Krogh-Madsen, R., Erikstrup, C., Lindegaard, B., Petersen, A.M., Taudorf, S., Pedersen, B.K. Diabetologia (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Dissection of TNF receptor 1 effector functions: JNK activation is not linked to apoptosis while NF-kappaB activation prevents cell death. Liu, Z.G., Hsu, H., Goeddel, D.V., Karin, M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. The response of human epithelial cells to TNF involves an inducible autocrine cascade. Janes, K.A., Gaudet, S., Albeck, J.G., Nielsen, U.B., Lauffenburger, D.A., Sorger, P.K. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. A novel mechanism of TRAF signaling revealed by structural and functional analyses of the TRADD-TRAF2 interaction. Park, Y.C., Ye, H., Hsia, C., Segal, D., Rich, R.L., Liou, H.C., Myszka, D.G., Wu, H. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning and expression of a receptor for human tumor necrosis factor. Schall, T.J., Lewis, M., Koller, K.J., Lee, A., Rice, G.C., Wong, G.H., Gatanaga, T., Granger, G.A., Lentz, R., Raab, H. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. The transmembrane form of tumor necrosis factor is the prime activating ligand of the 80 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor. Grell, M., Douni, E., Wajant, H., Löhden, M., Clauss, M., Maxeiner, B., Georgopoulos, S., Lesslauer, W., Kollias, G., Pfizenmaier, K., Scheurich, P. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Decreased sensitivity to tumour-necrosis factor but normal T-cell development in TNF receptor-2-deficient mice. Erickson, S.L., de Sauvage, F.J., Kikly, K., Carver-Moore, K., Pitts-Meek, S., Gillett, N., Sheehan, K.C., Schreiber, R.D., Goeddel, D.V., Moore, M.W. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of receptors for human tumour necrosis factor and their regulation by gamma-interferon. Aggarwal, B.B., Eessalu, T.E., Hass, P.E. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin. Borovikova, L.V., Ivanova, S., Zhang, M., Yang, H., Botchkina, G.I., Watkins, L.R., Wang, H., Abumrad, N., Eaton, J.W., Tracey, K.J. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. TNF-induced recruitment and activation of the IKK complex require Cdc37 and Hsp90. Chen, G., Cao, P., Goeddel, D.V. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. A human tumor necrosis factor p75 receptor agonist stimulates in vitro T cell proliferation but does not produce inflammation or shock in the baboon. Welborn, M.B., Van Zee, K., Edwards, P.D., Pruitt, J.H., Kaibara, A., Vauthey, J.N., Rogy, M., Castleman, W.L., Lowry, S.F., Kenney, J.S., Stüber, D., Ettlin, U., Wipf, B., Loetscher, H., Copeland, E.M., Lesslauer, W., Moldawer, L.L. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Ionizing radiation acts on cellular membranes to generate ceramide and initiate apoptosis. Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Kan, C.C., Ehleiter, D., Persaud, R.S., McLoughlin, M., Fuks, Z., Kolesnick, R.N. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Detection of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor in normal humans after intravenous endotoxin: the effect of antiinflammatory agents. Martich, G.D., Danner, R.L., Ceska, M., Suffredini, A.F. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Identification of Grb2 as a novel binding partner of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor I. Hildt, E., Oess, S. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Interleukin 18 stimulates HIV type 1 in monocytic cells. Shapiro, L., Puren, A.J., Barton, H.A., Novick, D., Peskind, R.L., Shenkar, R., Gu, Y., Su, M.S., Dinarello, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits the production of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by human endothelial cells in response to inflammatory mediators: modulation of NF-kappa B and AP-1 transcription factors activity. Muñoz, C., Pascual-Salcedo, D., Castellanos, M.C., Alfranca, A., Aragonés, J., Vara, A., Redondo, J.M., de Landázuri, M.O. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Differential effects of gangliosides on Ig production and proliferation by human B cells. Kimata, H., Yoshida, A. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. TRAF1 is a substrate of caspases activated during tumor necrosis factor receptor-alpha-induced apoptosis. Leo, E., Deveraux, Q.L., Buchholtz, C., Welsh, K., Matsuzawa, S., Stennicke, H.R., Salvesen, G.S., Reed, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Contribution of TNF-alpha converting enzyme and proteinase-3 to TNF-alpha processing in human alveolar macrophages. Armstrong, L., Godinho, S.I., Uppington, K.M., Whittington, H.A., Millar, A.B. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  43. Selective regulation by delta-PKC and PI 3-kinase in the assembly of the antiapoptotic TNFR-1 signaling complex in neutrophils. Kilpatrick, L.E., Sun, S., Korchak, H.M. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  44. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced the release of interleukin-6 from endometriotic stromal cells by the nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Yamauchi, N., Harada, T., Taniguchi, F., Yoshida, S., Iwabe, T., Terakawa, N. Fertil. Steril. (2004) [Pubmed]
  45. Tyrosine phosphorylation of I-kappa B kinase alpha/beta by protein kinase C-dependent c-Src activation is involved in TNF-alpha-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Huang, W.C., Chen, J.J., Inoue, H., Chen, C.C. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  46. Monocyte deactivation in septic patients: restoration by IFN-gamma treatment. Döcke, W.D., Randow, F., Syrbe, U., Krausch, D., Asadullah, K., Reinke, P., Volk, H.D., Kox, W. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  47. Interleukin-15 mediates T cell-dependent regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in rheumatoid arthritis. McInnes, I.B., Leung, B.P., Sturrock, R.D., Field, M., Liew, F.Y. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  48. Regulation of interleukin 10 release by tumor necrosis factor in humans and chimpanzees. van der Poll, T., Jansen, J., Levi, M., ten Cate, H., ten Cate, J.W., van Deventer, S.J. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  49. Regulation of cytokine production by soluble CD23: costimulation of interferon gamma secretion and triggering of tumor necrosis factor alpha release. Armant, M., Ishihara, H., Rubio, M., Delespesse, G., Sarfati, M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  50. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cell adhesion to human endothelial cells is under dominant control of one TNF receptor type, TNF-R55. Mackay, F., Loetscher, H., Stueber, D., Gehr, G., Lesslauer, W. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  51. Interaction between transmembrane TNF and TNFR1/2 mediates the activation of monocytes by contact with T cells. Rossol, M., Meusch, U., Pierer, M., Kaltenhäuser, S., Häntzschel, H., Hauschildt, S., Wagner, U. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  52. Smad7 sensitizes tumor necrosis factor induced apoptosis through the inhibition of antiapoptotic gene expression by suppressing activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. Hong, S., Lee, C., Kim, S.J. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  53. Distinctive role of integrin-mediated adhesion in TNF-induced PKB/Akt and NF-kappaB activation and endothelial cell survival. Bieler, G., Hasmim, M., Monnier, Y., Imaizumi, N., Ameyar, M., Bamat, J., Ponsonnet, L., Chouaib, S., Grell, M., Goodman, S.L., Lejeune, F., Rüegg, C. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  54. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 down-regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor-1 and confers resistance to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in T cells: implication for the progression to T-cell lymphoma in EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. Chuang, H.C., Lay, J.D., Chuang, S.E., Hsieh, W.C., Chang, Y., Su, I.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  55. HO-1 underlies resistance of AML cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. Rushworth, S.A., MacEwan, D.J. Blood (2008) [Pubmed]
  56. Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Feldmann, M., Brennan, F.M., Maini, R.N. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  57. Lymphotoxin beta, a novel member of the TNF family that forms a heteromeric complex with lymphotoxin on the cell surface. Browning, J.L., Ngam-ek, A., Lawton, P., DeMarinis, J., Tizard, R., Chow, E.P., Hession, C., O'Brine-Greco, B., Foley, S.F., Ware, C.F. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  58. TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2. Li, X., Yang, Y., Ashwell, J.D. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  59. TNF-alpha (-308 G/A) and CD14 (-159T/C) polymorphisms in the bronchial responsiveness of Korean children with asthma. Hong, S.J., Kim, H.B., Kang, M.J., Lee, S.Y., Kim, J.H., Kim, B.S., Jang, S.O., Shin, H.D., Park, C.S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  60. CARP-2 is an endosome-associated ubiquitin ligase for RIP and regulates TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation. Liao, W., Xiao, Q., Tchikov, V., Fujita, K., Yang, W., Wincovitch, S., Garfield, S., Conze, D., El-Deiry, W.S., Schütze, S., Srinivasula, S.M. Curr. Biol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  61. Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms and severe malaria in African populations. Clark, T.G., Diakite, M., Auburn, S., Campino, S., Fry, A.E., Green, A., Richardson, A., Small, K., Teo, Y.Y., Wilson, J., Jallow, M., Sisay-Joof, F., Pinder, M., Griffiths, M.J., Peshu, N., Williams, T.N., Marsh, K., Molyneux, M.E., Taylor, T.E., Rockett, K.A., Kwiatkowski, D.P. J. Infect. Dis. (2009) [Pubmed]
  62. Production of tumor necrosis factor/cachectin by human T cell lines and peripheral blood T lymphocytes stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate and anti-CD3 antibody. Sung, S.S., Bjorndahl, J.M., Wang, C.Y., Kao, H.T., Fu, S.M. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
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