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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Antifouling paint booster biocides in UK coastal waters: inputs, occurrence and environmental fate.

This study considered the inputs of antifouling paint booster biocides into the aquatic environment directly from painted hulls and high pressure hosing operations, the occurrence of booster biocides in marinas, harbours and docks, and the influence of degradation and water-sediment partition on their environmental fate. Irgarol 1051, the Irgarol 1051 degradation product GS26575, diuron, and the diuron degradation products 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3,1-dimethylurea (CPDU), 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea (DCPMU) and 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) were all detected at measurable concentrations in surface waters. Irgarol 1051, GS26575 and diuron were also detected in bottom sediments. A preliminary study of biocide input during both normal use and foreshore hull hosing showed that hosing may be a significant point source input and also be a cause for future concern since much of this input is in the form of paint particles. Field based measurements and laboratory experiments showed that Irgarol 1051 and diuron persist in the water column, due to a low affinity to partition onto sedimentary material and high resistance to degradation. Other biocides such as chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and Sea-Nine 211 were all found to be rapidly removed from the water column and be less persistent.[1]


  1. Antifouling paint booster biocides in UK coastal waters: inputs, occurrence and environmental fate. Thomas, K.V., McHugh, M., Waldock, M. Sci. Total Environ. (2002) [Pubmed]
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