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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anger and aggression in psychiatric outpatients.

BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the degree of anger and aggression experienced by psychiatric outpatients and to determine whether anger is as prominent an emotional state in these patients as are depression and anxiety. We also sought to determine which Axis I and Axis II disorders were associated with increased rates of subjective anger and aggressive behavior. METHOD: 1300 individuals presenting to a psychiatric outpatient practice underwent semistructured interviews to evaluate current DSM-IV Axis I (N = 1300) and Axis II disorders (N = 687). Levels of subjective anger and aggression during the preceding week were assessed in each patient, and the odds ratios were calculated for each disorder. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which psychiatric disorders independently contributed to the presence of subjective anger and aggressive behavior. RESULTS: Approximately one half of our sample reported currently experiencing moderate-to-severe levels of subjective anger, and about one quarter had demonstrated aggressive behavior in the preceding week. This level of anger was found to be comparable to the levels of depressed mood and psychic anxiety reported by our sample. Major depressive disorder, bipolar I disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and cluster B personality disorders independently contributed to the presence of both anger and aggression. CONCLUSION: Anger and aggression are prominent in psychiatric outpatients to a degree that may rival that of depression and anxiety; it is therefore important that clinicians routinely screen for these symptoms.[1]


  1. Anger and aggression in psychiatric outpatients. Posternak, M.A., Zimmerman, M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
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