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MeSH Review

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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Disease relevance of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


Psychiatry related information on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


High impact information on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  • 41 (33%) of 123 patients with acute psychiatric disorders (DSM III diagnosis of major depression or schizophrenia) had borderline or definite folate deficiency (red-cell folate below 200 micrograms/l) and took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of methylfolate, 15 mg daily, for 6 months in addition to standard psychotropic treatment [11].
  • Fourteen patients with a history of mania satisfying DSM-III criteria were entered into a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, spending four weeks on each of lithium and placebo [12].
  • PARTICIPANTS: White persons from the United Kingdom meeting criteria for DSM-IV schizophrenia (n = 709) or bipolar I disorder (n = 706) and 1416 ethnically matched controls [13].
  • Using continuous ratings of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms as a diagnostic qualifier should be considered as an alternative to classifying nominal subtypes of ADHD in DSM-V [14].
  • OBJECTIVES: To present national data on the co-occurrence of current DSM-IV nicotine dependence and other psychiatric disorders by sex and to estimate the burden of all US tobacco consumption carried by nicotine-dependent and psychiatrically ill individuals [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


Biological context of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  • In 1973 homosexuality per se was removed from the DSM-II classification of mental disorders and replaced by the category Sexual Orientation Disturbance [21].
  • Genotype assay development and genotyping of nine SNPs (four at HTR1D and five at OPRD1) was performed on 191 unrelated individuals fulfilling DSM-IV criteria (w/o amenorrhea criterion) for AN, 442 relatives of AN probands and 98 psychiatrically screened controls [22].
  • Relationships between clinical ratings and cortical evoked potentials were examined before and during antidepressant drug treatment in 32 patients with major depressive disorder (DSM-III) [23].
  • The authors used items of the DSM-IV and of the Heaviness of Smoking Index to characterize the nicotine dependence phenotype and to identify salient symptoms in a genetically informative community sample of Australian young adult female and male twins [24].
  • We used a progressive strategy with two different approaches (case-control and transmission disequilibrium test) and investigated six genetic polymorphisms spanning the DRD2 gene in 103 patients with DSM-IV criteria of schizophrenia, their 206 parents and 83 matched healthy control subjects [25].

Anatomical context of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


Associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: A sample of 250 inpatients with DSM-IV cocaine, heroin, and/or alcohol dependence were followed up at 6, 12, and 18 months [31].
  • BACKGROUND: No information is available on the co-occurrence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and Axis I and II psychiatric disorders in the US population [15].
  • Eighty newly admitted or readmitted men with DSM-III schizophrenia were assigned to receive 5, 10, or 20 mg/d of haloperidol for 4 weeks [32].
  • For the DSM-III composite diagnosis of Alcohol Abuse and/or Dependence, statistically significant MZ/DZ differences in concordance were found with male, but not female, twins [33].
  • As with alcohol, differences in MZ/DZ concordance were found for DSM-III composite diagnoses of Other Substance Abuse and/or Dependence with male, but not female, twins [33].

Gene context of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  • Of the 171 parents, 56 (33%) had a lifetime history of ADHD, with 28 (50%) continuing to meet DSM-IV criteria (i.e., "persistent" ADHD) [34].
  • In a previous report, we identified several heterozygous alterations, including a complete deletion, of the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which were associated with moderate hyperprolinemia in a subset of DSM III schizophrenic patients [35].
  • The production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 was measured in equal numbers (n = 29) of patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and controls who were matched for age and gender [36].
  • Thirty patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (DSM IV) who had not responded to an adequate trial with an antidepressant were assessed on the day before lithium augmentation (baseline) with the DEX/CRH test (pretreatment with 1.5 mg dexamethasone p.o. at 11 P.M. and CRH stimulation at 3 P.M. on the next day) [37].
  • Adult Caucasian non-smokers (n = 224) (1-99 cigarettes/lifetime) and smokers (n = 375) (> or = 100 cigarettes/lifetime) were assessed for demographics, tobacco/drug use history and DSM-IV dependence and genotyped for CYP2A6 alleles associated with decreased nicotine metabolism (CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*4, CYP2A6*9, CYP2A6*12) [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


  1. Comparison of paroxetine and nortriptyline in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease. Roose, S.P., Laghrissi-Thode, F., Kennedy, J.S., Nelson, J.C., Bigger, J.T., Pollock, B.G., Gaffney, A., Narayan, M., Finkel, M.S., McCafferty, J., Gergel, I. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Response to hyperventilation in a group of patients with panic disorder. Gorman, J.M., Askanazi, J., Liebowitz, M.R., Fyer, A.J., Stein, J., Kinney, J.M., Klein, D.F. The American journal of psychiatry. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. A search for susceptibility loci for anorexia nervosa: methods and sample description. Kaye, W.H., Lilenfeld, L.R., Berrettini, W.H., Strober, M., Devlin, B., Klump, K.L., Goldman, D., Bulik, C.M., Halmi, K.A., Fichter, M.M., Kaplan, A., Woodside, D.B., Treasure, J., Plotnicov, K.H., Pollice, C., Rao, R., McConaha, C.W. Biol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A single-blind, randomized trial comparing quetiapine and haloperidol in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Emsley, R., Turner, H.J., Schronen, J., Botha, K., Smit, R., Oosthuizen, P.P. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of olanzapine on prolactin levels of female patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone. Kim, K.S., Pae, C.U., Chae, J.H., Bahk, W.M., Jun, T.Y., Kim, D.J., Dickson, R.A. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Caffeine dependence syndrome. Evidence from case histories and experimental evaluations. Strain, E.C., Mumford, G.K., Silverman, K., Griffiths, R.R. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Lithium ratio in vitro. Diagnosis and lithium carbonate response in psychotic patients. Garver, D.L., Hitzemann, R., Hirschowitz, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Israeli combat veterans. Effect of phenelzine treatment. Lerer, B., Bleich, A., Kotler, M., Garb, R., Hertzberg, M., Levin, B. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Lactate provocation of panic attacks. I. Clinical and behavioral findings. Liebowitz, M.R., Fyer, A.J., Gorman, J.M., Dillon, D., Appleby, I.L., Levy, G., Anderson, S., Levitt, M., Palij, M., Davies, S.O. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Lithium carbonate use in children and adolescents. A survey of the literature. Youngerman, J., Canino, I.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Godfrey, P.S., Toone, B.K., Carney, M.W., Flynn, T.G., Bottiglieri, T., Laundy, M., Chanarin, I., Reynolds, E.H. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Rapid recurrence of mania following abrupt discontinuation of lithium. Mander, A.J., Loudon, J.B. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Variation at the DAOA/G30 locus influences susceptibility to major mood episodes but not psychosis in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Williams, N.M., Green, E.K., Macgregor, S., Dwyer, S., Norton, N., Williams, H., Raybould, R., Grozeva, D., Hamshere, M., Zammit, S., Jones, L., Cardno, A., Kirov, G., Jones, I., O'Donovan, M.C., Owen, M.J., Craddock, N. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Instability of the DSM-IV Subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Lahey, B.B., Pelham, W.E., Loney, J., Lee, S.S., Willcutt, E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Grant, B.F., Hasin, D.S., Chou, S.P., Stinson, F.S., Dawson, D.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. The co-occurrence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse in DSM-IV alcohol dependence: results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions on heterogeneity that differ by population subgroup. Hasin, D.S., Grant, B.F. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A double-blind trial of clomipramine and clorgyline. Insel, T.R., Murphy, D.L., Cohen, R.M., Alterman, I., Kilts, C., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Familial correlates of reduced central serotonergic system function in patients with personality disorders. Coccaro, E.F., Silverman, J.M., Klar, H.M., Horvath, T.B., Siever, L.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin levels: correlates with aggression and serotonin function in personality-disordered subjects. Coccaro, E.F., Kavoussi, R.J., Hauger, R.L., Cooper, T.B., Ferris, C.F. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Phenelzine vs atenolol in social phobia. A placebo-controlled comparison. Liebowitz, M.R., Schneier, F., Campeas, R., Hollander, E., Hatterer, J., Fyer, A., Gorman, J., Papp, L., Davies, S., Gully, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues. Spitzer, R.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Candidate genes for anorexia nervosa in the 1p33-36 linkage region: serotonin 1D and delta opioid receptor loci exhibit significant association to anorexia nervosa. Bergen, A.W., van den Bree, M.B., Yeager, M., Welch, R., Ganjei, J.K., Haque, K., Bacanu, S., Berrettini, W.H., Grice, D.E., Goldman, D., Bulik, C.M., Klump, K., Fichter, M., Halmi, K., Kaplan, A., Strober, M., Treasure, J., Woodside, B., Kaye, W.H. Mol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Cortical evoked potentials and clinical rating scales as measures of depressive illness. Ashton, H., Golding, J.F., Marsh, V.R., Thompson, J.W., Hassanyeh, F., Tyrer, S.P. Psychological medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Defining nicotine dependence for genetic research: evidence from Australian twins. Lessov, C.N., Martin, N.G., Statham, D.J., Todorov, A.A., Slutske, W.S., Bucholz, K.K., Heath, A.C., Madden, P.A. Psychological medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. The 3' region of the DRD2 gene is involved in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Dubertret, C., Gouya, L., Hanoun, N., Deybach, J.C., Adès, J., Hamon, M., Gorwood, P. Schizophr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of antidepressant medication on morning and evening thyroid function tests during a major depressive episode. Duval, F., Mokrani, M.C., Crocq, M.A., Jautz, M., Bailey, P., Diep, T.S., Macher, J.P. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. RBC lithium transport in the psychoses. Hitzemann, R., Mark, C., Hirschowitz, J., Garver, D. Biol. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. CSF beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in delirium. Koponen, H., Stenbäck, U., Mattila, E., Reinikainen, K., Soininen, H., Riekkinen, P.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Depression following spinal cord injury. A prospective in-patient study. Judd, F.K., Stone, J., Webber, J.E., Brown, D.J., Burrows, G.D. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Enlargement of brain cerebrospinal fluid spaces as a predictor of poor clinical outcome in melancholia. Cardoner, N., Pujol, J., Vallejo, J., Urretavizcaya, M., Deus, J., López-Sala, A., Benlloch, L., Menchón, J.M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of major depression on remission and relapse of substance dependence. Hasin, D., Liu, X., Nunes, E., McCloud, S., Samet, S., Endicott, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. A controlled dose comparison of haloperidol in newly admitted schizophrenic patients. Van Putten, T., Marder, S.R., Mintz, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Heterogeneity in the inheritance of alcoholism. A study of male and female twins. Pickens, R.W., Svikis, D.S., McGue, M., Lykken, D.T., Heston, L.L., Clayton, P.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Temperament and character profiles and the dopamine D4 receptor gene in ADHD. Lynn, D.E., Lubke, G., Yang, M., McCracken, J.T., McGough, J.J., Ishii, J., Loo, S.K., Nelson, S.F., Smalley, S.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Hyperprolinemia is a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder. Jacquet, H., Demily, C., Houy, E., Hecketsweiler, B., Bou, J., Raux, G., Lerond, J., Allio, G., Haouzir, S., Tillaux, A., Bellegou, C., Fouldrin, G., Delamillieure, P., Ménard, J.F., Dollfus, S., D'Amato, T., Petit, M., Thibaut, F., Frébourg, T., Campion, D. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Decreased in vitro production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in whole blood of patients with schizophrenia during treatment. Arolt, V., Rothermundt, M., Wandinger, K.P., Kirchner, H. Mol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Lithium augmentation increases the ACTH and cortisol response in the combined DEX/CRH test in unipolar major depression. Bschor, T., Adli, M., Baethge, C., Eichmann, U., Ising, M., Uhr, M., Modell, S., Künzel, H., Müller-Oerlinghausen, B., Bauer, M. Neuropsychopharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Ethnic variation in CYP2A6 and association of genetically slow nicotine metabolism and smoking in adult Caucasians. Schoedel, K.A., Hoffmann, E.B., Rao, Y., Sellers, E.M., Tyndale, R.F. Pharmacogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sibutramine in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Appolinario, J.C., Bacaltchuk, J., Sichieri, R., Claudino, A.M., Godoy-Matos, A., Morgan, C., Zanella, M.T., Coutinho, W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Chronic stress and major depression. Breslau, N., Davis, G.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression. Blumenthal, J.A., Babyak, M.A., Moore, K.A., Craighead, W.E., Herman, S., Khatri, P., Waugh, R., Napolitano, M.A., Forman, L.M., Appelbaum, M., Doraiswamy, P.M., Krishnan, K.R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  42. Impaired glucose tolerance and abnormal movements in patients with schizophrenia. Schultz, S.K., Arndt, S., Ho, B.C., Oliver, S.E., Andreasen, N.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Turner, D.C., Clark, L., Dowson, J., Robbins, T.W., Sahakian, B.J. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
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