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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate combined with electrocautery resection: the mushroom technique.

PURPOSE: The holmium laser allows bloodless enucleation of the prostate. A problem is how to remove a whole enucleated, free floating, large prostatic lobe from the bladder. A mechanical morcellator has been used to achieve tissue fragmentation but aspiration of and damage to the bladder wall are risks. Using the mushroom technique holmium laser enucleation and electrocautery resection can be combined without compromising the bloodless advantages of the laser procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 156 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia using a holmium laser with the mushroom technique. Preoperatively all patients were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum urine flow, ultrasound estimation of prostate volume and post-void residual urine, and pressure flow study. Laser enucleation of the prostatic lobes was performed at 66 W. Instead of releasing the lobes into the bladder they were left attached at the bladder neck by a narrow mushroom-like pedicle. At that point the vascular supply was almost completely interrupted and the lobes could easily be electroresected into small pieces without bleeding. Patients were followed 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure. RESULTS: No patient had significant blood loss or signs of the transurethral resection syndrome. A total of 19 patients were treated while under oral anticoagulation without major bleeding problems. Complete followup was available on 125 patients. Median baseline International Prostate Symptom Score decreased from 20 to 3 at 6 months (p <0.05) and remained stable at 12 and 24 months. Median maximum urine flow increased from 8 to 20 ml. per second at 6, 12 and 24 months (p <0.05). Median baseline post-void residual urine decreased from 190 to 30 ml. at 6 months (p <0.05) and remained low at 20 and 30 ml. at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Urodynamic evaluation preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively was available in 83 cases. Relief of obstruction was documented with a statistically significant decrease in median detrusor pressure at maximum urine flow from 87 to 48 cm. water (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Combining holmium laser enucleation and prostate electroresection with the mushroom technique is safe, efficient and bloodless surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with sustained relief of obstruction. With this technique there is no need for additional devices, such as a mechanical tissue morcellator.[1]


  1. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate combined with electrocautery resection: the mushroom technique. Hochreiter, W.W., Thalmann, G.N., Burkhard, F.C., Studer, U.E. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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