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Chemical Compound Review

Holmium-164     holmium

Synonyms: AC1L42VT, 164Ho, 15749-97-0, Holmium, isotope of mass 164
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Disease relevance of holmium


High impact information on holmium

  • Vascular injury and time course of smooth muscle cell proliferation after experimental holmium laser angioplasty [6].
  • Laser energy generated by a Holmium: YAG (Cardiogenesis Corporation, Sunnyvale, California) laser was transmitted to the myocardium via a flexible optical fiber capped by an optic lens [7].
  • At 30 min after occlusion, 8 dogs were randomized to the laser-treated group (30 to 40 transmural channels, 1 mm in diameter, were made in the cyanotic area using a holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser), and 10 were randomized to the control group (no treatment) [8].
  • The mean diameter of the dissections was smaller for excimer-induced craters (1.38 +/- 0.42 mm; n = 22) than for holmium-induced (2.7 +/- 0.87 mm; n = 22) and thulium-induced (2.37 +/- 0.42 mm; n = 14) craters (p less than 0.01 vs. mid-infrared dissections) [9].
  • To study adjacent tissue damage after delivery of holmium, thulium and excimer laser pulses, porcine thoracic aortas were irradiated in vivo [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of holmium


Biological context of holmium

  • The holmium (Ho):YAG laser, which has cutting and coagulating properties, has been demonstrated to have many applications in urology [15].
  • Safety and efficacy of holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy in patients with bleeding diatheses [16].
  • RESULTS: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate resulted in a significant improvement in subjective symptoms and urodynamic parameters [17].
  • HoLEP is a transurethral procedure that uses the holmium laser fiber (wavelength 2,140 nm) to dissect whole prostatic lobes off of the surgical capsule in retrograde fashion, while maintaining excellent hemostasis [18].
  • HoLEP and TURP resulted in a significant improvement in American Urological Association symptom scores, peak urinary flow rates and post-void residual urine volumes with symptoms scores and residual volume significantly better in the holmium group [19].

Anatomical context of holmium


Associations of holmium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of holmium

  • RESULTS: The three-dimensional structure of holmium-substituted psoriasin has been determined by multiple anomalous wavelength dispersion (MAD) phasing and refined to atomic resolution (1.05 A) [28].
  • Holmium: YAG laser to treat astigmatism associated with myopia or hyperopia [29].
  • CONCLUSION: Although this technique has several advantages over other techniques (holmium, ALK, PRK, hexagonal RK), it has a high rate of retreatment and some complications [30].
  • Winston Churchill said it best: "Give us the tools and we will finish the job." Industry has provided urologists with the tools in the form of advanced flexible ureteroscopes, the holmium laser, nitinol baskets, and the ureteral access sheath [31].
  • Immunohistochemical study of localization of extracellular matrix after holmium YAG laser irradiation in rat cornea [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of holmium

  • Six weeks after holmium laser angioplasty, SMC proliferation had returned to control levels in the intima and remained increased in the medial layer [6].
  • Holmium laser ablation resulted in an initial decrease of the numbers of intimal cell layers in the early group (7 days after treatment: 5 +/- 1 cell layers with 76 +/- 39 microns; control: 13 +/- 3 cell layers with 144 +/- 44 microns) [6].
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the administration and biodistribution of holmium-loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS) in liver tumors [33].
  • A holmium filter reduced skin exposure by more than 50% in excretory urography [34].
  • Holmium laser lithotripsy is now used as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stones [35].


  1. Transmyocardial revascularization in patients with refractory, unstable angina. Dowling, R.D., Petracek, M.R., Selinger, S.L., Allen, K.B. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate combined with electrocautery resection: the mushroom technique. Hochreiter, W.W., Thalmann, G.N., Burkhard, F.C., Studer, U.E. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperopia correction by noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty. Clinical study with two-year follow-up. Koch, D.D., Abarca, A., Villarreal, R., Menefee, R., Kohnen, T., Vassiliadis, A., Berry, M. Ophthalmology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Initial experience with endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for pediatric urolithiasis. Reddy, P.P., Barrieras, D.J., Bägli, D.J., McLorie, G.A., Khoury, A.E., Merguerian, P.A. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Ureteral access sheath for the management of pediatric renal and ureteral stones: a single center experience. Singh, A., Shah, G., Young, J., Sheridan, M., Haas, G., Upadhyay, J. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Vascular injury and time course of smooth muscle cell proliferation after experimental holmium laser angioplasty. Hassenstein, S., Hanke, H., Kamenz, J., Oberhoff, M., Hanke, S., Riessen, R., Haase, K.K., Betz, E., Karsch, K.R. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Catheter-based percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization in patients with end-stage coronary artery disease. Lauer, B., Junghans, U., Stahl, F., Kluge, R., Oesterle, S.N., Schuler, G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Laser-mediated transmural myocardial channels do not salvage acutely ischemic myocardium. Whittaker, P., Kloner, R.A., Przyklenk, K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig. van Leeuwen, T.G., van Erven, L., Meertens, J.H., Motamedi, M., Post, M.J., Borst, C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of biliary calculi using holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Das, A.K., Chiura, A., Conlin, M.J., Eschelman, D., Bagley, D.H. Gastrointest. Endosc. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Holmium: YAG laser prostatectomy canine feasibility study. Kabalin, J.N. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. ADP-2Ho as a phasing tool for nucleotide-containing proteins. Ku, S.Y., Smith, G.D., Howell, P.L. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Ureteroscopic management of lower-pole renal calculi: technique of calculus displacement. Auge, B.K., Dahm, P., Wu, N.Z., Preminger, G.M. J. Endourol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of ureteroscopic biopsy in the management of upper urinary tract malignancy. Shiraishi, K., Eguchi, S., Mohri, J., Kamiryo, Y. International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Holmium: YAG laser endoureterotomy for ureterointestinal strictures. Watterson, J.D., Sofer, M., Wollin, T.A., Nott, L., Denstedt, J.D. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Safety and efficacy of holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy in patients with bleeding diatheses. Watterson, J.D., Girvan, A.R., Cook, A.J., Beiko, D.T., Nott, L., Auge, B.K., Preminger, G.M., Denstedt, J.D. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Holmium laser enucleation for prostatic adenoma: analysis of learning curve over the course of 70 consecutive cases. Seki, N., Mochida, O., Kinukawa, N., Sagiyama, K., Naito, S. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. A randomized trial comparing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate with transurethral resection of the prostate for the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia in large glands (40 to 200 grams). Tan, A.H., Gilling, P.J., Kennett, K.M., Frampton, C., Westenberg, A.M., Fraundorfer, M.R. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate versus transurethral electrocautery resection of the prostate: a randomized prospective trial in 200 patients. Kuntz, R.M., Ahyai, S., Lehrich, K., Fayad, A. J. Urol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro model for the study of necrosis and apoptosis in native cartilage. Grogan, S.P., Aklin, B., Frenz, M., Brunner, T., Schaffner, T., Mainil-Varlet, P. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Holmium laser bladder neck incision versus holmium enucleation of the prostate as outpatient procedures for prostates less than 40 grams: a randomized trial. Aho, T.F., Gilling, P.J., Kennett, K.M., Westenberg, A.M., Fraundorfer, M.R., Frampton, C.M. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Extensive detachment of Descemet membrane after holmium laser sclerostomy. Bergsma, D.R., McCaa, C.S. Ophthalmology (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Holmium laser lithotripsy for ejaculatory duct calculi. Tackett, L.D., Minevich, E., Wacksman, J., Sheldon, C.A. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Holmium:YAG lithotripsy: photothermal mechanism converts uric acid calculi to cyanide. Teichman, J.M., Vassar, G.J., Glickman, R.D., Beserra, C.M., Cina, S.J., Thompson, I.M. J. Urol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Bidentate lactate binding in aqueous solution in a cationic, heptadentate lanthanide complex: an effective chiral derivatising agent. Dickins, R.S., Love, C.S., Puschmann, H. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Influence of neutron irradiation on holmium acetylacetonate loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres. Nijsen, J.F., van Het Schip, A.D., van Steenbergen, M.J., Zielhuis, S.W., Kroon-Batenburg, L.M., van de Weert, M., van Rijk, P.P., Hennink, W.E. Biomaterials (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Experimental and theoretical x-ray imaging performance comparison of iodine and lanthanide contrast agents. Cardinal, H.N., Holdsworth, D.W., Drangova, M., Hobbs, B.B., Fenster, A. Medical physics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. EF-hands at atomic resolution: the structure of human psoriasin (S100A7) solved by MAD phasing. Brodersen, D.E., Etzerodt, M., Madsen, P., Celis, J.E., Thøgersen, H.C., Nyborg, J., Kjeldgaard, M. Structure (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Holmium: YAG laser to treat astigmatism associated with myopia or hyperopia. Cherry, P.M. Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995) (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia. Ojeimi, G., Waked, N. Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J. : 1995) (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Ureteral access strategies: pro-access sheath. Vanlangendonck, R., Landman, J. Urol. Clin. North Am. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunohistochemical study of localization of extracellular matrix after holmium YAG laser irradiation in rat cornea. Tanaka, T., Furutani-Miura, S., Nakamura, M., Nishida, T. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Liver tumors: MR imaging of radioactive holmium microspheres--phantom and rabbit study. Nijsen, J.F., Seppenwoolde, J.H., Havenith, T., Bos, C., Bakker, C.J., van het Schip, A.D. Radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Reduction of patient exposure by use of heavy elements as radiation filters in diagnostic radiology. Villagran, J.E., Hobbs, B.B., Taylor, K.W. Radiology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  35. Pediatric urolithiasis: 15 years of local experience with minimally invasive endourological management of pediatric calculi. Raza, A., Turna, B., Smith, G., Moussa, S., Tolley, D.A. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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