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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cell cycle inhibition by FoxO forkhead transcription factors involves downregulation of cyclin D.

The FoxO forkhead transcription factors FoxO4 (AFX), FoxO3a (FKHR.L1), and FoxO1a ( FKHR) represent important physiological targets of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B ( PKB) signaling. Overexpression or conditional activation of FoxO factors is able to antagonize many responses to constitutive PI3K/ PKB activation including its effect on cellular proliferation. It was previously shown that the FoxO-induced cell cycle arrest is partially mediated by enhanced transcription and protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) (R. H. Medema, G. J. Kops, J. L. Bos, and B. M. Burgering, Nature 404:782-787, 2000). Here we have identified a p27(kip1)-independent mechanism that plays an important role in the antiproliferative effect of FoxO factors. Forced expression or conditional activation of FoxO factors leads to reduced protein expression of the D-type cyclins D1 and D2 and is associated with an impaired capacity of CDK4 to phosphorylate and inactivate the S-phase repressor pRb. Downregulation of D-type cyclins involves a transcriptional repression mechanism and does not require p27(kip1) function. Ectopic expression of cyclin D1 can partially overcome FoxO factor-induced cell cycle arrest, demonstrating that downregulation of D-type cyclins represents a physiologically relevant mechanism of FoxO-induced cell cycle inhibition.[1]


  1. Cell cycle inhibition by FoxO forkhead transcription factors involves downregulation of cyclin D. Schmidt, M., Fernandez de Mattos, S., van der Horst, A., Klompmaker, R., Kops, G.J., Lam, E.W., Burgering, B.M., Medema, R.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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