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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Influence of limonene on the bioavailability of nicardipine hydrochloride from membrane-moderated transdermal therapeutic systems in human volunteers.

The aim of the present study was to develop a membrane-moderated transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) of nicardipine hydrochloride using 2%w/w hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) gel as a reservoir system containing 4%w/w of limonene as a penetration enhancer. The permeability flux of nicardipine hydrochloride through ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer membrane was found to increase with an increase in vinyl acetate (VA) content in the copolymer. The effect of various pressure-sensitive adhesives (MA-31, MA-38 or TACKWHITE A 4MED) on the permeability of nicardipine hydrochloride through EVA membrane 2825 (28% w/w VA) or membrane/skin composite was also studied. The results showed that nicardipine hydrochloride permeability through EVA 2825 membrane coated with TACKWHITE 4A MED/skin composite was higher than that coated with MA-31or MA-38. Thus a new TTS for nicardipine hydrochloride was formulated using EVA 2825 membrane coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive TACKWHITE 4A MED and 2%w/w HPC gel as reservoir containing 4%w/w of limonene as a penetration enhancer. The bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers indicated that the TTS of nicardipine hydrochloride, designed in the present study, provided steady state plasma concentration of the drug with minimal fluctuations for 20 h with improved bioavailability in comparison with the immediate release capsule dosage form.[1]


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