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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Long-term prospective follow-up of botulinum toxin treatment for facial rhytides.

Some wrinkles and unsightly facial expressions are due to hyperactivity of the underlying facial musculature. Clostridium botulinum type A exotoxin reversibly paralyzes selected muscles and is a safe, helpful adjunct to many other treatments for facial rejuvenation. Fifty-two patients were treated and all data recorded in a prospective fashion. Only areas requested by the patient were treated. The dosage and dilution given in each area were carefully noted and all patients had pretreatment and posttreatment photographs. The effect of botulinum toxin injections on the horizontal brow rhytides was recorded by measuring the distance from the frontal hairline to the superior edge of the eyebrow in the mid-pupillary line. Patients were followed for one to three years (mean 16.3 months). One patient was not responsive to botulinum toxin in spite of repeated injections. Three further patients required touch-up injections two weeks after the initial treatment due to a weak initial response. Repeat injections were required every three to six months (mean 4.05) to maintain the desired improvement. Asymmetry of the brow was seen in two patients and corrected with further administration of botulinum toxin. Twenty-five patients had their forehead rhytides injected and the appropriate measurements taken. Brow ptosis occurred in 22 of the 25 patients and varied 1-6 mm with a mean value of 2.3 mm. This difference was statistically significant (paired t-test p <0.001). Two patients reported dryness and flakiness of the frontal area after injections. No cases of eyelid ptosis or hypersensitivity were seen. Botulinum toxin injections are safe and all undesired effects are reversible. Great care has to be taken not to aggravate the degree of brow ptosis. Injection of the forehead depressors minimizes the risk of brow ptosis. Careful planning of injection sites and doses avoids a mask-like upper face. The use of botulinum toxin provides a useful adjunct to laser and surgical procedures for facial rejuvenation.[1]


  1. Long-term prospective follow-up of botulinum toxin treatment for facial rhytides. Bulstrode, N.W., Grobbelaar, A.O. Aesthetic plastic surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
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