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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Direct binding of Nur77/NAK-1 to the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) promoter regulates TNF alpha - induced PAI-1 expression.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is the main fibrinolysis inhibitor, and high plasma levels are associated with an increased risk for vascular diseases. Inflammatory cytokines regulate PAI-1 through a hitherto unclear mechanism. Using reporter gene analysis, we could identify a region in the PAI-1 promoter that contributes to basal expression as well as to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) induction of PAI-1 in endothelial cells. Using this region as bait in a genetic screen, we could identify Nur77 (NAK-1, TR3, NR4A1) as an inducible DNA-binding protein that binds specifically to the PAI-1 promoter. Nur77 drives transcription of PAI-1 through direct binding to an NGFI-B responsive element (NBRE), indicating monomeric binding and a ligand-independent mechanism. Nur77, itself, is transcriptionally up-regulated by TNFalpha. High expression levels of Nur77 and its colocalization with PAI-1 in atherosclerotic tissues indicate that the described mechanism for PAI-1 regulation may also be operative in vivo.[1]


  1. Direct binding of Nur77/NAK-1 to the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) promoter regulates TNF alpha -induced PAI-1 expression. Gruber, F., Hufnagl, P., Hofer-Warbinek, R., Schmid, J.A., Breuss, J.M., Huber-Beckmann, R., Lucerna, M., Papac, N., Harant, H., Lindley, I., de Martin, R., Binder, B.R. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
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