The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Distinct protein kinase C isoforms mediate regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by A2A adenosine receptor activation and phorbol esters in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis during development and in disease. In pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, VEGF expression is regulated by A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) activation. The present work examines the underlying signaling pathway. The adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A cascade has no role in the down-regulation of VEGF mRNA induced by the A(2A)AR agonist, 2-[4-[(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl]ethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680). Conversely, 6-h exposure of cells to either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or protein kinase C ( PKC) inhibitors mimicked the CGS21680-induced down-regulation. PMA activated PKCalpha, PKCepsilon, and PKCzeta, and CGS21680 activated PKCepsilon and PKCzeta as assessed by cellular translocation. By 6 h, PMA but not CGS21680 decreased PKCalpha and PKCepsilon expression. Neither compound affected PKCzeta levels. Following prolonged PMA treatment to down-regulate susceptible PKC isoforms, CGS21680 but not PMA inhibited the cobalt chloride induction of VEGF mRNA. The proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, abolished PMA- but not CGS21680-induced down-regulation of VEGF mRNA. Phorbol 12,13-diacetate reduced VEGF mRNA levels while down-regulating PKCepsilon but not PKCalpha expression. In cells expressing a dominant negative PKCzeta construct, CGS21680 was unable to reduce VEGF mRNA. Together, the findings suggest that phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of VEGF mRNA occurs as a result of a reduction of PKCepsilon activity, whereas that mediated by the A(2A)AR occurs following deactivation of PKCzeta.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities