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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide: kinetics of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in exposed workers.

The objectives of this study was to establish the kinetics of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (U-TTCA) for workers exposed to carbon disulphide (CS2) and to investigate the effects of volume and creatinine adjustment methods for urine measurement. Ten workers in the spinning department of a rayon factory were individually monitored for airborne CS2 concentrations, with consecutive urine samples collected for 24-38 hours after termination of exposure. The U-TTCA, urine volume and creatinine level were measured for each sample. First-order and biphasic kinetics were determined using the curve-fit method, for the measurement series. For the first-order kinetics linearity fit, statistically significant correlation coefficients of 0.74-0.98 and 0.86-0.99 were derived for the volume- and creatinine-adjusted methods, respectively. For the biphasic kinetics approach, the overall correlation coefficients were 0.544-0.999 and 0.171-0.999 for the first and second phases of the creatinine-adjusted method, respectively. A post-shift U-TTCA of 3.0 mg/g Cr. equivalent, 40% below the current BEI setting at nearly PEL exposed level, was found. In conclusion, first-order kinetic response was confirmed for U-ITCA. Both volume- and creatinine-based urine adjustment are satisfactory for TTCA assessment as a biomarker of individual CS2 exposure although the correlation for creatinine-based measurement was modestly superior to the volume-based analogue. Based on the results of this study,we recommend a re-evaluation of the current biological exposure index of 5 mg/g creatinine at a CS2 exposure level of 10 ppm.[1]


  1. Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide: kinetics of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in exposed workers. Chang, H.Y., Chou, T.C., Wang, P.Y., Shih, T.S. Toxicology and industrial health. (2002) [Pubmed]
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