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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transcriptional regulation of tristetraprolin by transforming growth factor-beta in human T cells.

Transforming growth factor-beta ( TGF-beta) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a critical role in modulating immune response and inflammation. We employed the Affymetrix cDNA microarray system to detect genes whose expression is regulated by TGF-beta1 in a human T cell line HuT78. Tristetraprolin ( TTP), a protein involved in the degradation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-alpha) mRNA, was found to be up-regulated by TGF-beta. This up-regulation was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis that revealed a rapid and transient induction of TTP mRNA by TGF-beta 1 in HuT78 cells, primary human T cells, and THP-1 macrophage-monocyte cells. In addition, de novo protein synthesis was not required for this induction, suggesting that TTP is regulated by TGF-beta at the transcriptional level. To delineate the transcriptional regulation of the TTP gene, a 2.7-kb human TTP promoter region (-2682 to +56 bp relative to the transcription initiation site) was isolated. We found that this promoter was stimulated by TGF-beta 1 or a constitutively active TGF-beta type I receptor via TGF-beta-specific Smad proteins. Furthermore, a series of TTP promoter deletion constructs were used to localize the Smad-responsive region to the -583 to -263 bp portion of the promoter. In this region, the TTP promoter contained a stretch of putative Smad- binding elements that had a synergistic effect in mediating Smad activation of the promoter. These putative Smad- binding element-containing sequences were also able to bind Smad3 and Smad4 proteins purified in vitro. As TGF-beta- and TTP-deficient mice exhibit overlapping phenotypes manifested by multifocal inflammation and autoimmunity, our findings that TTP transcription is under the control of TGF-beta signaling would indicate a potential role of TTP in mediating the immune suppressive action of TGF-beta in vivo.[1]


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