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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Promoter Regions (Genetics)

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Disease relevance of Promoter Regions (Genetics)


Psychiatry related information on Promoter Regions (Genetics)


High impact information on Promoter Regions (Genetics)


Chemical compound and disease context of Promoter Regions (Genetics)


Biological context of Promoter Regions (Genetics)


Anatomical context of Promoter Regions (Genetics)


Associations of Promoter Regions (Genetics) with chemical compounds

  • Sequences in the promoter region of the chicken lysozyme gene required for steroid regulation and receptor binding [31].
  • Reduced expression of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 due to an abnormality in the promoter region of the gene for this enzyme appears to be necessary for Gilbert's syndrome but not sufficient for the complete manifestation of the syndrome [32].
  • The polymerase binding capcity of rRNA promoters was estimated from the number of rRNA chains initiated by heparin-resistant complexes under conditions of template saturation and from the number of rRNA transcription units participating in the binding reaction [33].
  • Sequence differences were found between wild-type B and C3 and mutant C3 rDNAs in the replication origin region, changing an upstream repeat of a highly conserved rRNA promoter element [34].
  • We have previously identified T4 late promoters governing the in vivo expression of T4 late genes 23 and 24 (P23 and P24) [35].

Gene context of Promoter Regions (Genetics)

  • Hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis through the binding of hypoxia-inducible factors to the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) promotor [36].
  • Finally, GCN4 protein binds to the promoter regions of coordinately regulated genes, but not to analogous regions of other genes [37].
  • These results suggest that the regulatory activities of Ubx are direct and are mediated by binding of Ubx proteins to promoter region sequences [38].
  • The A-->G substitution in the promoter region and the (CTG)n repeat in exon 1 of NOTCH4 may be candidate sites conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia [39].
  • Furthermore, we show that the heme regulatory site in the CYC1 promoter region is an upstream activation site (UASc) centered about 275 bp upstream from the region of transcriptional initiation [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Promoter Regions (Genetics)


  1. A CCAAT box sequence in the adenovirus major late promoter functions as part of an RNA polymerase II termination signal. Connelly, S., Manley, J.L. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. DNA sequences of promoter regions for the str and spc ribosomal protein operons in E. coli. Post, L.E., Arfsten, A.E., Reusser, F., Nomura, M. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. DNA sequences bound specifically by glucocorticoid receptor in vitro render a heterologous promoter hormone responsive in vivo. Chandler, V.L., Maler, B.A., Yamamoto, K.R. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation of transcription factors that discriminate between different promoters recognized by RNA polymerase II. Dynan, W.S., Tjian, R. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Causal relationship between the loss of RUNX3 expression and gastric cancer. Li, Q.L., Ito, K., Sakakura, C., Fukamachi, H., Inoue, K., Chi, X.Z., Lee, K.Y., Nomura, S., Lee, C.W., Han, S.B., Kim, H.M., Kim, W.J., Yamamoto, H., Yamashita, N., Yano, T., Ikeda, T., Itohara, S., Inazawa, J., Abe, T., Hagiwara, A., Yamagishi, H., Ooe, A., Kaneda, A., Sugimura, T., Ushijima, T., Bae, S.C., Ito, Y. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Impaired feedback regulation of XBP1 as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder. Kakiuchi, C., Iwamoto, K., Ishiwata, M., Bundo, M., Kasahara, T., Kusumi, I., Tsujita, T., Okazaki, Y., Nanko, S., Kunugi, H., Sasaki, T., Kato, T. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. DGGE method for the mutational analysis of the coding and proximal promoter regions of the Alzheimer's disease presenilin-1 gene: two novel mutations. Aldudo, J., Bullido, M.J., Valdivieso, F. Hum. Mutat. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and mood response during tryptophan depletion. Moreno, F.A., Rowe, D.C., Kaiser, B., Chase, D., Michaels, T., Gelernter, J., Delgado, P.L. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to mood disorders. Hoehe, M.R., Wendel, B., Grunewald, I., Chiaroni, P., Levy, N., Morris-Rosendahl, D., Macher, J.P., Sander, T., Crocq, M.A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Family-based association study of serotonin transporter promoter in suicidal adolescents: no association with suicidality but possible role in violence traits. Zalsman, G., Frisch, A., Bromberg, M., Gelernter, J., Michaelovsky, E., Campino, A., Erlich, Z., Tyano, S., Apter, A., Weizman, A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Common themes in assembly and function of eukaryotic transcription complexes. Zawel, L., Reinberg, D. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Short double-stranded RNA induces transcriptional gene silencing in human cancer cells in the absence of DNA methylation. Ting, A.H., Schuebel, K.E., Herman, J.G., Baylin, S.B. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. DksA: a critical component of the transcription initiation machinery that potentiates the regulation of rRNA promoters by ppGpp and the initiating NTP. Paul, B.J., Barker, M.M., Ross, W., Schneider, D.A., Webb, C., Foster, J.W., Gourse, R.L. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Role for DNA methylation in the control of cell type specific maspin expression. Futscher, B.W., Oshiro, M.M., Wozniak, R.J., Holtan, N., Hanigan, C.L., Duan, H., Domann, F.E. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Enattah, N.S., Sahi, T., Savilahti, E., Terwilliger, J.D., Peltonen, L., Järvelä, I. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression from cloned cDNA of cell-surface secreted forms of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in eucaryotic cells. Rose, J.K., Bergmann, J.E. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetically transformed maize plants from protoplasts. Rhodes, C.A., Pierce, D.A., Mettler, I.J., Mascarenhas, D., Detmer, J.J. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of the binding sites for the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein at the lactose and galactose promoters. Kolb, A., Busby, S., Herbert, M., Kotlarz, D., Buc, H. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of a yeast protein homologous in function to the mammalian general transcription factor, TFIIA. Hahn, S., Buratowski, S., Sharp, P.A., Guarente, L. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Maize Adh-1 promoter sequences control anaerobic regulation: addition of upstream promoter elements from constitutive genes is necessary for expression in tobacco. Ellis, J.G., Llewellyn, D.J., Dennis, E.S., Peacock, W.J. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. A nuclear factor 1 binding site mediates the transcriptional activation of a type I collagen promoter by transforming growth factor-beta. Rossi, P., Karsenty, G., Roberts, A.B., Roche, N.S., Sporn, M.B., de Crombrugghe, B. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Defining a bacteriophage T4 late promoter: absence of a "-35" region. Elliott, T., Geiduschek, E.P. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Cell-type specificity of immunoglobulin gene expression is regulated by at least three DNA sequence elements. Grosschedl, R., Baltimore, D. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Ankyrin-1 mutations are a major cause of dominant and recessive hereditary spherocytosis. Eber, S.W., Gonzalez, J.M., Lux, M.L., Scarpa, A.L., Tse, W.T., Dornwell, M., Herbers, J., Kugler, W., Ozcan, R., Pekrun, A., Gallagher, P.G., Schröter, W., Forget, B.G., Lux, S.E. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Skin hyperkeratosis and papilloma formation in transgenic mice expressing a ras oncogene from a suprabasal keratin promoter. Bailleul, B., Surani, M.A., White, S., Barton, S.C., Brown, K., Blessing, M., Jorcano, J., Balmain, A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. The BCL-6 proto-oncogene controls germinal-centre formation and Th2-type inflammation. Ye, B.H., Cattoretti, G., Shen, Q., Zhang, J., Hawe, N., de Waard, R., Leung, C., Nouri-Shirazi, M., Orazi, A., Chaganti, R.S., Rothman, P., Stall, A.M., Pandolfi, P.P., Dalla-Favera, R. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. RAP-1 factor is necessary for DNA loop formation in vitro at the silent mating type locus HML. Hofmann, J.F., Laroche, T., Brand, A.H., Gasser, S.M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification by cell fusion of gene sequences that interact with positive trans-acting factors. Lufkin, T., Bancroft, C. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of tumor necrosis factor by different tumor cell lines results either in tumor suppression or augmented metastasis. Qin, Z., Krüger-Krasagakes, S., Kunzendorf, U., Hock, H., Diamantstein, T., Blankenstein, T. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. E-Cadherin gene promoter hypermethylation in primary human gastric carcinomas. Tamura, G., Yin, J., Wang, S., Fleisher, A.S., Zou, T., Abraham, J.M., Kong, D., Smolinski, K.N., Wilson, K.T., James, S.P., Silverberg, S.G., Nishizuka, S., Terashima, M., Motoyama, T., Meltzer, S.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Sequences in the promoter region of the chicken lysozyme gene required for steroid regulation and receptor binding. Renkawitz, R., Schütz, G., von der Ahe, D., Beato, M. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. The genetic basis of the reduced expression of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 in Gilbert's syndrome. Bosma, P.J., Chowdhury, J.R., Bakker, C., Gantla, S., de Boer, A., Oostra, B.A., Lindhout, D., Tytgat, G.N., Jansen, P.L., Oude Elferink, R.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Capacity of ribosomal RNA promoters of E. coli to bind RNA polymerase. Mueller, K., Oebbecke, C., Förster, G. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  34. Control of rDNA replication in Tetrahymena involves a cis-acting upstream repeat of a promoter element. Larson, D.D., Blackburn, E.H., Yaeger, P.C., Orias, E. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Initiation of transcription at phage T4 late promoters with purified RNA polymerase. Kassavetis, G.A., Elliott, T., Rabussay, D.P., Geiduschek, E.P. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter causes motor neuron degeneration. Oosthuyse, B., Moons, L., Storkebaum, E., Beck, H., Nuyens, D., Brusselmans, K., Van Dorpe, J., Hellings, P., Gorselink, M., Heymans, S., Theilmeier, G., Dewerchin, M., Laudenbach, V., Vermylen, P., Raat, H., Acker, T., Vleminckx, V., Van Den Bosch, L., Cashman, N., Fujisawa, H., Drost, M.R., Sciot, R., Bruyninckx, F., Hicklin, D.J., Ince, C., Gressens, P., Lupu, F., Plate, K.H., Robberecht, W., Herbert, J.M., Collen, D., Carmeliet, P. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. GCN4 protein, synthesized in vitro, binds HIS3 regulatory sequences: implications for general control of amino acid biosynthetic genes in yeast. Hope, I.A., Struhl, K. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. An Ultrabithorax protein binds sequences near its own and the Antennapedia P1 promoters. Beachy, P.A., Krasnow, M.A., Gavis, E.R., Hogness, D.S. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. The NOTCH4 locus is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Wei, J., Hemmings, G.P. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Heme regulates transcription of the CYC1 gene of S. cerevisiae via an upstream activation site. Guarente, L., Mason, T. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  41. A nucleosomal function for IkappaB kinase-alpha in NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. Anest, V., Hanson, J.L., Cogswell, P.C., Steinbrecher, K.A., Strahl, B.D., Baldwin, A.S. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  42. Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. McGuire, W., Hill, A.V., Allsopp, C.E., Greenwood, B.M., Kwiatkowski, D. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Interaction between transcription regulatory regions of prolactin chromatin. Cullen, K.E., Kladde, M.P., Seyfred, M.A. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  44. In vivo footprint and methylation analysis by PCR-aided genomic sequencing: comparison of active and inactive X chromosomal DNA at the CpG island and promoter of human PGK-1. Pfeifer, G.P., Tanguay, R.L., Steigerwald, S.D., Riggs, A.D. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  45. Two functions encoded by adenovirus early region 1A are responsible for the activation and repression of the DNA-binding protein gene. Guilfoyle, R.A., Osheroff, W.P., Rossini, M. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
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