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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression and cell distribution of group I and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in taylor-type focal cortical dysplasia.

PURPOSE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is known to be a major cause of intractable epilepsy. The cellular mechanism(s) underlying the epileptogenicity of FCD remain largely unknown. Because recent studies indicate that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes (mGluRs) play a role in epileptogenesis, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution pattern of mGluRs in FCD specimens. METHODS: Immunocytochemical expression of group I and group II mGluR subtypes was investigated in 15 specimens of human FCD obtained during epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Strong mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 (group I mGluRs) immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in the majority of FCD specimens in dysplastic as well as in heterotopic neurons. mGluR1alpha was expressed in a subpopulation of neurons (mainly large dysplastic cells), whereas mGluR5 was represented in a higher percentage of dysplastic neuronal cells. Group II mGluRs (mGluR2/3) IR was observed less frequently than that in group I mGluRs and generally appeared in <10% of the dysplastic neurons. IR for all three mGluR subtypes was observed in balloon cells. mGluR2/3 appeared to be most frequently expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive balloon cells (glial type), and mGluR1alpha, in microtubule-associated protein (MAP)2-positive cells (neuronal type). mGluR5 was present in the majority of balloon cells. Occasionally glial mGluR1alpha IR was observed in bizarre glial cells with di- or multinuclei. Reactive astrocytes were intensively stained, mainly with mGluR5 and mGluR2/3. CONCLUSIONS: The cellular distribution of mGluR subtypes, with high expression of mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 in dysplastic neurons, suggests a possible contribution of group I mGluRs to the intrinsic and high epileptogenicity of dysplastic cortical regions.[1]


  1. Expression and cell distribution of group I and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in taylor-type focal cortical dysplasia. Aronica, E., Gorter, J.A., Jansen, G.H., van Veelen, C.W., van Rijen, P.C., Ramkema, M., Troost, D. Epilepsia (2003) [Pubmed]
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