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Gene Review

GFAP  -  glial fibrillary acidic protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ45472, Glial fibrillary acidic protein
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Disease relevance of GFAP


Psychiatry related information on GFAP

  • Serum anti-GFAP and anti-S100 autoantibodies in brain aging, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia [6].
  • Significantly increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was seen in postmortem brain tissue from demented patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (73 cases, 61 females/12 males, mean age 84 +/- 9 years) compared to controls (22 cases, 10 females/12 males, mean age 78 +/- 9 years) [7].
  • When patients with schizophrenia were divided into demented and non-demented subtypes, those with dementia demonstrated significantly greater numbers of GFAP-positive astrocytes than those without dementia [8].
  • GFAP levels in children with infantile autism were higher than those in normal children of the same age range [9].
  • In the white matter of ACC we detected a significant effect of diagnosis (P<0.04) with GFAP mRNA levels decreased in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as compared with normal controls [10].

High impact information on GFAP


Chemical compound and disease context of GFAP


Biological context of GFAP


Anatomical context of GFAP


Associations of GFAP with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GFAP


Co-localisations of GFAP


Regulatory relationships of GFAP


Other interactions of GFAP

  • These studies revealed a strong expression of GFAP, vimentin, and CD34 [40].
  • There was a correlation between GFAP levels and ambulation in SP multiple sclerosis (r = 0.57, P < 0.01), and between S100B level and the 9HPT in PP multiple sclerosis patients (r = -0.85, P < 0.01) [41].
  • RPE cells in culture also expressed CK-Vim-GFAP and changed from an epithelial shape to a migratory fibroblast/fusiform-shaped phenotype in the presence of subretinal fluid aspirates and pathologic vitreous from proliferative intraocular disorders [42].
  • RESULTS: Based on morphology and on GFAP and vimentin immunopositivity, retinas from all subjects with diabetes immunostained strongly to VEGF in elongated processes that appeared to be Müller cells [43].
  • 2. Neurofilament protein could not be demonstrated in fixed material, and all tumors were negative for GFAP and desmin [44].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GFAP


  1. Suppression by antisense mRNA demonstrates a requirement for the glial fibrillary acidic protein in the formation of stable astrocytic processes in response to neurons. Weinstein, D.E., Shelanski, M.L., Liem, R.K. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of mycophenolic acid on detection of glial filaments in human and rat astrocytoma cultures. Lipsky, R.H., Silverman, S.J. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes in cell lines derived from human gliomas and neuroblastomas. Kashima, T., Tiu, S.N., Merrill, J.E., Vinters, H.V., Dawson, G., Campagnoni, A.T. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Plectin regulates the organization of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Alexander disease. Tian, R., Gregor, M., Wiche, G., Goldman, J.E. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential diagnosis of chordoma, chondroid, and ependymal tumors as aided by anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Miettinen, M., Lehto, V.P., Dahl, D., Virtanen, I. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Serum anti-GFAP and anti-S100 autoantibodies in brain aging, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Mecocci, P., Parnetti, L., Romano, G., Scarelli, A., Chionne, F., Cecchetti, R., Polidori, M.C., Palumbo, B., Cherubini, A., Senin, U. J. Neuroimmunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Astrogliosis and the ApoE genotype. an immunohistochemical study of postmortem human brain tissue. Overmyer, M., Helisalmi, S., Soininen, H., Laakso, M., Riekkinen, P., Alafuzoff, I. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytosis in elderly patients with schizophrenia and dementia. Arnold, S.E., Franz, B.R., Trojanowski, J.Q., Moberg, P.J., Gur, R.E. Acta Neuropathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. A sensitive ELISA for glial fibrillary acidic protein: application in CSF of children. Rosengren, L.E., Ahlsén, G., Belfrage, M., Gillberg, C., Haglid, K.G., Hamberger, A. J. Neurosci. Methods (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex of individuals with depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Webster, M.J., O'Grady, J., Kleinman, J.E., Weickert, C.S. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in GFAP, encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein, are associated with Alexander disease. Brenner, M., Johnson, A.B., Boespflug-Tanguy, O., Rodriguez, D., Goldman, J.E., Messing, A. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Autoimmune islet destruction in spontaneous type 1 diabetes is not beta-cell exclusive. Winer, S., Tsui, H., Lau, A., Song, A., Li, X., Cheung, R.K., Sampson, A., Afifiyan, F., Elford, A., Jackowski, G., Becker, D.J., Santamaria, P., Ohashi, P., Dosch, H.M. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. A downstream initiation element required for efficient TATA box binding and in vitro function of TFIID. Nakatani, Y., Horikoshi, M., Brenner, M., Yamamoto, T., Besnard, F., Roeder, R.G., Freese, E. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. p16(ink4a) and retinoic acid modulate rhoA and GFAP expression during induction of a stellate phenotype in U343 MG-A astrocytoma cells. Langlois, A., Lee, S., Kim, D.S., Dirks, P.B., Rutka, J.T. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Stimulation of thromboxane release from primary cell cultures derived from human astrocytic glioma biopsies. Murphy, S., Welk, G., Thwin, S.S. Glia (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Hemangioblastoma of the central nervous system: nature of the stromal cells as studied by the immunoperoxidase technique. Tanimura, A., Nakamura, Y., Hachisuka, H., Tanimura, Y., Fukumura, A. Hum. Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Differentiation-dependent expression of transgenes in engineered astrocyte cell lines. Segovia, J., Vergara, P., Brenner, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Proliferating potential of folliculo-stellate cells in human pituitary adenomas. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis. Iwaki, T., Kondo, A., Takeshita, I., Nakagaki, H., Kitamura, K., Tateishi, J. Acta Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 inhibits the beta-adrenergic regulation of astroglial and microglial functions. Levi, G., Patrizio, M., Bernardo, A., Petrucci, T.C., Agresti, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Glial fibrillary acidic protein: dynamic property and regulation by phosphorylation. Inagaki, M., Nakamura, Y., Takeda, M., Nishimura, T., Inagaki, N. Brain Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Self-assembly of the cytoskeletal glial fibrillary acidic protein is inhibited by an isoform-specific C terminus. Nielsen, A.L., Jørgensen, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult human Huntington's disease brain. Curtis, M.A., Penney, E.B., Pearson, A.G., van Roon-Mom, W.M., Butterworth, N.J., Dragunow, M., Connor, B., Faull, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Low affinity NGF receptor expression in CMT1A nerve biopsies of different disease stages. Hanemann, C.O., Gabreëls-Fasten, A.A., Müller, H.W., Stoll, G. Brain (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in human respiratory tract cartilages and pulmonary chondromatous hamartomas. Viale, G., Doglioni, C., Dell'Orto, P., Zanetti, G., Iuzzolino, P., Bontempini, L., Coggi, G. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) impairs Schwann cell proliferation and delays nerve regeneration after damage. Triolo, D., Dina, G., Lorenzetti, I., Malaguti, M., Morana, P., Del Carro, U., Comi, G., Messing, A., Quattrini, A., Previtali, S.C. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Pathologic evaluation of the human suprachiasmatic nucleus in severe dementia. Stopa, E.G., Volicer, L., Kuo-Leblanc, V., Harper, D., Lathi, D., Tate, B., Satlin, A. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Gliosarcoma: a histologic and immunohistochemical reaffirmation. Meis, J.M., Ho, K.L., Nelson, J.S. Mod. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Modification of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene: a portal to transform mesenchymal stem cells into advantageous engineering cells for neuroregeneration and neuroprotection. Zhao, L.X., Zhang, J., Cao, F., Meng, L., Wang, D.M., Li, Y.H., Nan, X., Jiao, W.C., Zheng, M., Xu, X.H., Pei, X.T. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Gene expression in astrocytes during and after ischemia. Yu, A.C., Lee, Y.L., Fu, W.Y., Eng, L.F. Prog. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Methyl-CpG binding proteins are involved in restricting differentiation plasticity in neurons. Setoguchi, H., Namihira, M., Kohyama, J., Asano, H., Sanosaka, T., Nakashima, K. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Bi-allelic inactivation of the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene in human grade II astrocytoma. Karges, W., Karges, B., Ludwig, L., Heidemann, P.H. Cancer Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Chronic supranigral infusion of BDNF in normal and MPTP-treated common marmosets. Pearce, R.K., Costa, S., Jenner, P., Marsden, C.D. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Bidirectional transcription regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein by estradiol in vivo and in vitro. Stone, D.J., Song, Y., Anderson, C.P., Krohn, K.K., Finch, C.E., Rozovsky, I. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Changes in retinal gene expression in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: glial cell expression of HB-EGF. Hollborn, M., Tenckhoff, S., Jahn, K., Iandiev, I., Biedermann, B., Schnurrbusch, U.E., Limb, G.A., Reichenbach, A., Wolf, S., Wiedemann, P., Kohen, L., Bringmann, A. Mol. Vis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Association of elevated glial expression of interleukin-1beta with improved survival in patients with glioblastomas multiforme. Cuny, E., Loiseau, H., Penchet, G., Ellie, E., Arsaut, J., Vital, A., Vincendeau, P., Demotes-Mainard, J. J. Neurosurg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Gamma-ray irradiation stimulates the expression of caveolin-1 and GFAP in rat spinal cord: a study of immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Ahn, M., Kim, H., Kim, J.T., Lee, J., Hyun, J.W., Park, J.W., Shin, T. J. Vet. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. S100b counteracts effects of the neurotoxicant trimethyltin on astrocytes and microglia. Reali, C., Scintu, F., Pillai, R., Donato, R., Michetti, F., Sogos, V. J. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Differentiation in medulloblastomas and other primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Sime, P.J., Gordon, A., Hooper, M.L., Bell, J.E. British journal of neurosurgery. (1989) [Pubmed]
  39. Localization of aquaporin-1 water channel in glial cells of the human peripheral nervous system. Gao, H., He, C., Fang, X., Hou, X., Feng, X., Yang, H., Zhao, X., Ma, T. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characterization of a novel tumor entity. Reifenberger, G., Weber, T., Weber, R.G., Wolter, M., Brandis, A., Kuchelmeister, K., Pilz, P., Reusche, E., Lichter, P., Wiestler, O.D. Brain Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Markers for different glial cell responses in multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological correlations. Petzold, A., Eikelenboom, M.J., Gveric, D., Keir, G., Chapman, M., Lazeron, R.H., Cuzner, M.L., Polman, C.H., Uitdehaag, B.M., Thompson, E.J., Giovannoni, G. Brain (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: intermediate filament protein expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Casaroli-Marano, R.P., Pagan, R., Vilaró, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Vascular endothelial growth factor is present in glial cells of the retina and optic nerve of human subjects with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Amin, R.H., Frank, R.N., Kennedy, A., Eliott, D., Puklin, J.E., Abrams, G.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  44. Paragangliomas of the head and neck: immunohistochemical neuroendocrine and intermediate filament typing. Johnson, T.L., Zarbo, R.J., Lloyd, R.V., Crissman, J.D. Mod. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  45. Measles virus-induced disruption of the glial-fibrillary-acidic protein cytoskeleton in an astrocytoma cell line (U-251). Duprex, W.P., McQuaid, S., Rima, B.K. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  46. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived adherent progenitors into the developing rodent brain. Coenen, M., Kögler, G., Wernet, P., Brüstle, O. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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