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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toll-like receptor 2- and 6-mediated stimulation by macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 induces lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cross tolerance in mice, which results in protection from tumor necrosis factor alpha but in only partial protection from lethal LPS doses.

Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha ( TNF-alpha) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 ( TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-alpha could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-alpha shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-alpha doses in TLR4(-/-) but not in TLR2(-/-) mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 micro g. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-alpha, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use.[1]


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