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Chemical Compound Review

GALACTOSAMINE     (3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-amino-6...

Synonyms: galn, Chondrosamine, SureCN28731, CHEBI:60312, LS-71022, ...
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Disease relevance of GALACTOSAMINE


Psychiatry related information on GALACTOSAMINE


High impact information on GALACTOSAMINE


Chemical compound and disease context of GALACTOSAMINE


Biological context of GALACTOSAMINE


Anatomical context of GALACTOSAMINE


Associations of GALACTOSAMINE with other chemical compounds

  • Suppression of Fas-induced activation of the caspase by IL-1beta was diminished by coadministration with D-galactosamine and reversed by coinjection with an excess amount of uridine [27].
  • We studied the effects of acute and chronic ethanol feeding on hepatic regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy and toxic liver injury produced by D-galactosamine [28].
  • Glucosamine- and galactosamine-containing GAG were labeled equivalently by [3H=A1-glucose regardless of culture type, allowing incorporation into the various GAG to be compared under all conditions studied [29].
  • Carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine are known to produce different patterns of acute liver injury, with maximal hepatocyte DNA synthesis at 48 hr and 5 days, respectively [30].
  • In the present study, we investigated whether HGF could work as an anti-hepatitis agent for acute liver injury caused by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) using transgenic (TG) mice expressing HGF in hepatocytes, compared with wild-type (WT) mice of their siblings [31].

Gene context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • In contrast, in similarly perfused liver 24 hours after treatment with D-galactosamine (800 mg/kg intraperitoneally), ET-1 caused rapid and remarkable increases in the leakage of LDH and AST from the liver accompanied by the reduction of perfusion flow to the extent similar to that observed in control livers [32].
  • Using the hepatotoxin D-galactosamine (D-GalNH2), we demonstrate that MRL-lpr/lpr mice have an increased susceptibility to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced lethal shock, which causes them to exhibit the septic shock-like behaviors of fur ruffling and listlessness, and death occurs within 8 to 18 h [33].
  • After treating mice with lipopolysaccharide or TNFalpha in the presence of d-galactosamine, Bid was cleaved and translocated to mitochondria in hepatocytes [34].
  • It is known that an acute hepatotoxicity is produced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of galactosamine; a consequence of this treatment is a marked deficiency of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in the plasma compartment [35].
  • Our results also show that, in contrast to expectations, IL4-/- mice are more susceptible to SEB plus low-dose D-galactosamine-induced shock and that this response is TNF-alpha-dependent [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GALACTOSAMINE


  1. Cellular transplantation in the treatment of experimental hepatic failure. Makowka, L., Falk, R.E., Rotstein, L.E., Falk, J.A., Nossal, N., Langer, B., Blendis, L.M., Phillips, M.J. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Lethal toxicity of lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor in normal and D-galactosamine-treated mice. Lehmann, V., Freudenberg, M.A., Galanos, C. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Mice deficient in IL-1beta manifest impaired contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzone. Shornick, L.P., De Togni, P., Mariathasan, S., Goellner, J., Strauss-Schoenberger, J., Karr, R.W., Ferguson, T.A., Chaplin, D.D. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  6. Visual evoked potentials in encephalopathy induced by galactosamine, ammonia, dimethyldisulfide, and octanoic acid. Zeneroli, M.L., Ventura, E., Baraldi, M., Penne, A., Messori, E., Zieve, L. Hepatology (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Feeding behavior and ambulatory activity in rats with D-galactosamine-induced hepatic failure. Shimomura, Y., Saito, S., Nagamine, T., Shimizu, H., Takahashi, M., Uehara, Y., Sato, N., Negishi, M., Yamada, S., Kobayashi, I. Physiol. Behav. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  9. TNF-alpha induction by LPS is regulated posttranscriptionally via a Tpl2/ERK-dependent pathway. Dumitru, C.D., Ceci, J.D., Tsatsanis, C., Kontoyiannis, D., Stamatakis, K., Lin, J.H., Patriotis, C., Jenkins, N.A., Copeland, N.G., Kollias, G., Tsichlis, P.N. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Alexopoulou, L., Holt, A.C., Medzhitov, R., Flavell, R.A. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Mice lacking the tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 are resistant to TNF-mediated toxicity but highly susceptible to infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Rothe, J., Lesslauer, W., Lötscher, H., Lang, Y., Koebel, P., Köntgen, F., Althage, A., Zinkernagel, R., Steinmetz, M., Bluethmann, H. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis in vitro: a new model. Schanne, F.A., Zucker, A.H., Farber, J.L., Rubin, E. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipoprotein and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase changes in galactosamine-induced rat liver injury. Sabesin, S.M., Kuiken, L.B., Ragland, J.B. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. A model of fulminant hepatic failure in the rabbit. Blitzer, B.L., Waggoner, J.G., Jones, E.A., Gralnick, H.R., Towne, D., Butler, J., Weise, V., Kopin, I.J., Walters, I., Teychenne, P.F., Goodman, D.G., Berk, P.D. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Visual evoked potentials in a rabbit model of hepatic encephalopathy. I. Sequential changes and comparisons with drug-induced comas. Schafer, D.F., Pappas, S.C., Brody, L.E., Jacobs, R., Jones, E.A. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Interferon gamma plays a critical role in T cell-dependent liver injury in mice initiated by concanavalin A. Küsters, S., Gantner, F., Künstle, G., Tiegs, G. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Visual evoked potentials in a rabbit model of hepatic encephalopathy. II. Comparison of hyperammonemic encephalopathy, postictal coma, and coma induced by synergistic neurotoxins. Pappas, S.C., Ferenci, P., Schafer, D.F., Jones, E.A. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Novel lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) knockout mice with unperturbed tumor necrosis factor expression: reassessing LTalpha biological functions. Liepinsh, D.J., Grivennikov, S.I., Klarmann, K.D., Lagarkova, M.A., Drutskaya, M.S., Lockett, S.J., Tessarollo, L., McAuliffe, M., Keller, J.R., Kuprash, D.V., Nedospasov, S.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Hydrazine sulfate protects D-galactosamine-sensitized mice against endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor/cachectin lethality: evidence of a role for the pituitary. Silverstein, R., Turley, B.R., Christoffersen, C.A., Johnson, D.C., Morrison, D.C. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Decrease of a hepatic binding protein specific for asialoglycoproteins with accumulation of serum asialoglycoproteins in galactosamine-treated rats. Sawamura, T., Kawasato, S., Shiozaki, Y., Sameshima, Y., Nakada, H., Tashiro, Y. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Brain edema in rabbits with galactosamine-induced fulminant hepatitis. Regional differences and effects on intracranial pressure. Traber, P.G., Ganger, D.R., Blei, A.T. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. The kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate inhibits TNF-{alpha} production in vitro and prevents TNF-dependent acute hepatic inflammation. Wolf, A.M., Wolf, D., Rumpold, H., Ludwiczek, S., Enrich, B., Gastl, G., Weiss, G., Tilg, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Carbohydrate heterogeneity of fibronectins. Synovial fluid fibronectin resembles the form secreted by cultured synoviocytes but differs from the plasma form. Carsons, S., Lavietes, B.B., Slomiany, A., Diamond, H.S., Berkowitz, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. D-Galactosamine hepatotoxicity is associated with endotoxin sensitivity and mediated by lymphoreticular cells in mice. Chojkier, M., Fierer, J. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Protective effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against T-cell-meditated lethal shock triggered by superantigens. Aoki, Y., Hiromatsu, K., Kobayashi, N., Hotta, T., Saito, H., Igarashi, H., Niho, Y., Yoshikai, Y. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. B lymphoblastoid cell lines with normal and defective O-glycosylation established from an individual with blood group Tn. Gahmberg, C.G., Peltokorpi, L., Andersson, L.C. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin 1beta protects mice from Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis and death. Takehara, T., Hayashi, N., Tatsumi, T., Kanto, T., Mita, E., Sasaki, Y., Kasahara, A., Hori, M. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of hepatic regeneration in rats by acute and chronic ethanol intoxication. Wands, J.R., Carter, E.A., Bucher, N.L., Isselbacher, K.J. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Relationship of transformation, cell density, and growth control to the cellular distribution of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycan. Cohn, R.H., Cassiman, J.J., Bernfield, M.R. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Transforming growth factor-alpha expression during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and toxic injury, and potential interactions between transforming growth factor-alpha and hepatocyte growth factor. Webber, E.M., FitzGerald, M.J., Brown, P.I., Bartlett, M.H., Fausto, N. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Protective action of hepatocyte growth factor for acute liver injury caused by D-galactosamine in transgenic mice. Okano, J., Shiota, G., Kawasaki, H. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Endothelin 1 aggravates acute liver injury in perfused livers of rats after treatment with D-galactosamine. Iwai, M., Yamauchi, T., Shimazu, T. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased susceptibility of fas mutant MRL-lpr/lpr mice to staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced septic shock. Mountz, J.D., Baker, T.J., Borcherding, D.R., Bluethmann, H., Zhou, T., Edwards, C.K. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Activation of pro-death Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondria apoptosis pathway in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced liver injury. Zhao, Y., Li, S., Childs, E.E., Kuharsky, D.K., Yin, X.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. High density lipoprotein subpopulations from galactosamine-treated rats and their transformation by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. Matsuura, J.E., Swaney, J.B. J. Lipid Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. The role of IL-4 in the staphylococcal enterotoxin B-triggered immune response: increased susceptibility to shock and deletion of CD8Vbeta8+ T cells in IL-4 knockout mice. Aroeira, L.S., Martínez-A, C. Eur. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure. Horowitz, M.E., Schafer, D.F., Molnar, P., Jones, E.A., Blasberg, R.G., Patlak, C.S., Waggoner, J., Fenstermacher, J.D. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. The fate of intravenously injected endotoxin in normal rats and in rats with liver failure. Nakao, A., Taki, S., Yasui, M., Kimura, Y., Nonami, T., Harada, A., Takagi, H. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. The effect of liver dysfunction on colchicine pharmacokinetics in the rat. Leighton, J.A., Bay, M.K., Maldonado, A.L., Johnson, R.F., Schenker, S., Speeg, K.V. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
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