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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Proton transport in maize tonoplasts supported by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate cleavage. Pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase as a pyrophosphate-regenerating system.

The energy derived from pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis is used to pump protons across the tonoplast membrane, thus forming a proton gradient. In a plant's cytosol, the concentration of PPi varies between 10 and 800 microm, and the PPi concentration needed for one-half maximal activity of the maize (Zea mays) root tonoplast H+-pyrophosphatase is 30 microm. In this report, we show that the H+-pyrophosphatase of maize root vacuoles is able to hydrolyze PPi (Reaction 2) formed by Reaction 1, which is catalyzed by PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase ( PFP): Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) + Pi <--> PPi +Fructose-6-phosphate (F6 P) (reaction 1) PPi --> 2 Pi (reaction 2) H+cyt --> H+vac (reaction 3) F1,6BP + H+cyt <--> H+vac + F6P + Pi (reaction 4) During the steady state, one-half of the inorganic phosphate released (Reaction 4) is ultimately derived from F1,6BP, whereas PFP continuously regenerates the pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolyzed. A proton gradient (DeltapH) can be built up in tonoplast vesicles using PFP as a PPi-regenerating system. The Delta pH formed by the H+-pyrophosphatase can be dissipated by addition of 20 mm F6P, which drives Reaction 1 to the left and decreases the PPi available for the H+-pyrophosphatase. The maximal Delta pH attained by the pyrophosphatase coupled to the PFP reaction can be maintained by PFP activities far below those found in higher plants tissues.[1]


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