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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Collagen cross-linking. Effect of D-penicillamine on cross-linking in vitro.

D-Pencillamine is believed to inhibit collagen cross-link biosynthesis by forming thiazolidine rings with lysyl-derived aldehydes that are intermediates in bifunctional cross-link synthesis. Recently, we showed that aldehyde biosynthesis catalyzed by lysyl oxidase occurs after the onset of fibril formation and that nascent aldehydes form Schiff-base cross-links rapidly in fibrils. This suggested that the accessibility of D-penicillamine to most aldehydes formed during cross-link synthesis might be limited. To study this, reconstituted chick bone collagen fibrils were incubated in vitro with highly purified lysyl oxidase and D-penicillamine. As reported in previous studies in vivo, allysine content increased and polyfunctional cross-link synthesis decreased with D-penicillamine. However, the concentration of bifunctional cross-links increased rather than decreased due to a 2-fold increase in N6:6'-dehydro-5,5'-dihydroxylysinonorleucine. Hydroxyallysine, an intermediate in formation of this Schiff base, decreased. A time study indicated that allysine levels increased primarily after the bulk of Schiff base synthesis. These results indicate that D-penicillamine does not inhibit bifunctional cross-link synthesis as previously suggested. Its principal effect is to block synthesis of polyfunctional cross-link products from Schiff base cross-link precursors and to cause accumulation of these precursors. This effect may be due to interference with the close molecular packing required for polyfunctional cross-link synthesis. These results also suggest a mechanism for the relative insensitivity of tissues such as bone with high hydroxylysine content to D-penicillamine. In this study, D-penicillamine caused selective accumulation of allysyl and not hydroxyallysyl residues. In bone as opposed to soft tissues, hydroxyallysyl residues are intermediates in synthesis of almost all cross-links.[1]


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