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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cooperation of proto-signals for nuclear accumulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors.

Multiple proto-signals (p-NLSs) for nuclear targeting, none of which suffices on its own, cooperate in the estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. In the ER, an estrogen-inducible p-NLS was found in the hormone binding domain (HBD), in addition to three lysine/arginine-rich motifs resembling prototype constitutive nuclear localization signals (NLSs). The inducible and the constitutive ER p-NLSs cooperate in the presence of estrogen and hydroxy-tamoxifen, but not in the presence of ICI 164,384. In the PR, three p-NLSs, two of which are located within and directly adjacent to the second zinc finger, cooperate with each other and a weak hormone-inducible p-NLS in the PR HBD. No 'masking' of p-NLSs by the HBD was observed for ER and PR, while the ligand-free glucocorticoid receptor HBD inhibited the activity of both homologous and heterologous NLSs. Nuclear co-translocation experiments indicated that in vivo the stability of ER and PR dimers is hormonally controlled, but that, in the absence of the cognate ligand, ER dimers are more stable than PR dimers. This is likely to account for the differential hormone requirement of ER and PR DNA binding in vitro.[1]


  1. Cooperation of proto-signals for nuclear accumulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Ylikomi, T., Bocquel, M.T., Berry, M., Gronemeyer, H., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
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