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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor (LACI) is a cofactor for heparin: synergistic anticoagulant action between LACI and sulfated polysaccharides.

Lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor (LACI) is a plasma-derived protein that inhibits tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa-induced coagulation in a factor Xa-dependent manner. The roles of endogenous plasma LACI and exogenously added LACI and heparin, in the regulation of coagulation, initiated via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, were studied using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and the modified prothrombin time (PT) assays, respectively. Both LACI-depleted plasma and normal plasma have identical APTTs and similar prolongations of the APTT in response to heparin; both are fully anticoagulated (arbitrarily defined as clotting times of greater than 1 hour) at similar concentrations of heparin. These results indicate that heparin is an effective anticoagulant when coagulation is initiated by the intrinsic pathway and that endogenous LACI is not significantly involved in the regulation of this pathway. The PT of normal plasma is only marginally longer than that of LACI-depleted plasma in the absence of heparin, suggesting that endogenous plasma LACI has a very limited capacity to inhibit TF-induced clotting. However, in the presence of heparin, the PTs of LACI-depleted plasma and normal plasma are different. Prolongation of the PT occurred only moderately and linearly with increasing concentrations of heparin in LACI-depleted plasma. In contrast, normal plasma showed a greater extent of PT prolongation in response to heparin and the plasma became fully anticoagulated at a certain threshold concentration of heparin. These results suggest that LACI serves as a cofactor for heparin and thus greatly enhances the inhibition of TF-induced coagulation. LACI-depleted plasma was supplemented with purified recombinant LACI and/or heparin and the effects on TF-induced clotting were studied. A combination of LACI and heparin greatly enhanced anticoagulation compared with LACI or heparin alone. Many sulfated polysaccharides were also found to enhance the LACI-dependent inhibition of TF-induced clotting. By weight, the relative potencies of these compounds are: low molecular weight heparin (mean Mr, 5,100) greater than unfractionated heparin greater than low molecular weight heparin (mean Mr, 3,700) greater than pentosan polysulfate greater than dermatan sulfate greater than dextran sulfate greater than heparan sulfate. Based on the above results, it is concluded that LACI is a cofactor for heparin in the inhibition of TF- induced clotting and that LACI and sulfated polysaccharides act synergistically in whole plasma.[1]


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