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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated nitric oxide synthases.

NO synthase ( NOS) catalyzes the oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) or a NO-releasing compound. At least three isoforms of NOS exist (types I-III). The activities of the type I isoform purified from brain and the type III isoform purified from endothelial cells are regulated by the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin. At resting [Ca2+]i, both isozymes are inactive; they become fully active at [Ca2+]i greater than or equal to 500 nM Ca2+. Longer lasting increases in [Ca2+]i may downregulate NO formation, for in vitro phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II decreases the Vmax of NOS. Besides the conversion of L-arginine, type I NOS, Ca2+/calmodulin dependently, generates H2O2 and reduces cytochrome c/P450. Other redox activities, i.e. the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium to diformazan (NADPH-diaphorase) or of quinoid-dihydrobiopterin to tetrahydrobiopterin, by NOS appear to be Ca2+/calmodulin-independent.[1]


  1. Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated nitric oxide synthases. Schmidt, H.H., Pollock, J.S., Nakane, M., Förstermann, U., Murad, F. Cell Calcium (1992) [Pubmed]
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