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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP2 is a critical mediator of transformation induced by the oncogenic fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and the epidermal growth factor receptor are overexpressed in a variety of cancers. In addition to overexpression, the FGFRs are found mutated in some cancers. The Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) is a critical mediator of RTK signaling, but its role in oncogenic RTK-induced cell transformation and cancer development is largely unknown. In the current report, we demonstrate that constitutively activated FGFR3 (K/E-FR3) transforms NIH-3T3 cells, and that SHP2 is a critical mediator of this transformation. Infection of K/E-FR3-transformed 3T3 cells with a retrovirus carrying a dominant-negative mutant of SHP2 (C/S-SHP2) retarded cell growth, reversed the transformation phenotype and inhibited focus-forming ability. Furthermore, treatment of K/E-FR3-transformed NIH-3T3 cells with PD98059 or LY294002, specific inhibitors of MEK and PI3K, respectively, inhibited focus formation. Biochemical analysis showed that K/E-FR3 activates the Ras-ERK and the PI3K signaling pathways, and that the C/S SHP2 mutant suppressed this effect via competitive displacement of interaction of the endogenous SHP2 with FRS2. However, the C/S SHP2 protein did not show any effect on receptor autophosphorylation, FRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation or interaction of Grb2 with K/E-FR3 or FRS2. Together, the results show that K/E-FR3 is transforming and that the Ras-ERK and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, which are positively regulated by SHP2, are important for K/E-FR3-induced transformation.[1]


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