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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Replicated anterior zeugopod (raz): a polydactylous mouse mutant with lowered Shh signaling in the limb bud.

A unique limb phenotype is described in a radiation-induced mutant mouse resulting from an inversion of a proximal segment of chromosome 5. The limb phenotype in the homozygous mutant presents with two anterior skeletal elements in the zeugopod but no posterior bone, hence the name replicated anterior zeugopod, raz. The zeugopod phenotype is accompanied by symmetrical central polydactyly of hand and foot. The chromosomal inversion includes the Shh gene and the regulatory locus, located approximately 1 Mb away, within the Lmbr1 gene. In homozygous mutants, the expression of Shh mRNA and Shh protein is severely downregulated to about 20% of wild-type limb buds, but Shh expression appears normal throughout the remainder of the embryo. Correspondingly, Gli3 expression is upregulated and posteriorly expanded in the raz/raz limb bud. We propose that the double anterior zeugopod and symmetrical central polydactyly are due to an increased and uniform concentration of the Gli3 repressor form because of lowered Shh signaling.[1]


  1. Replicated anterior zeugopod (raz): a polydactylous mouse mutant with lowered Shh signaling in the limb bud. Krebs, O., Schreiner, C.M., Scott, W.J., Bell, S.M., Robbins, D.J., Goetz, J.A., Alt, H., Hawes, N., Wolf, E., Favor, J. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
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