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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inherited hypercalciuric syndromes: Dent's disease (CLC-5) and familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria (paracellin-1).

Dent's disease and familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) are inherited diseases in which hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal failure are prominent features. Dent's disease resembles a Fanconi syndrome, with impaired reabsorption in the proximal tubule; FHHNC, with urinary loss of magnesium and calcium, is associated with impaired cation transport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Gene mapping in families and positional cloning led in both cases to identification of the responsible gene. Dent's disease is associated with mutations that disrupt function of a voltage-gated chloride channel, CLC-5, expressed in subapical endosomes of the proximal tubule and in other nephron segments. Impaired function of this channel disturbs reabsorption of filtered proteins, as well as other transport functions of the proximal tubule, and leads, apparently indirectly, to hypercalciuria and renal failure. FHHNC results from mutations in paracellin-1, a tight-junction protein that appears to be important in conducting or regulating paracellular cation transport. Impaired function of paracellin-1 leads specifically to urinary losses of magnesium and calcium, but because transcellular transport is intact these patients do not have hypokalemia or salt wasting. Identification of both genes represent triumphs of a genetic approach to solving problems of pathophysiology.[1]


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