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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Endosomes


Psychiatry related information on Endosomes

  • Early endosomes are a major site of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and a convergence point for molecules of pathologic relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD) [6].

High impact information on Endosomes

  • The pIgR binds its ligand at the basolateral surface and is internalized into endosomes [7].
  • The enzyme is also vital for the proper function of endosomes and the Golgi apparatus [8].
  • Several cargos destined for degradation are preferentially targeted to the dynamic endosomes, whereas the recycling ligand transferrin is nonselectively delivered to all early endosomes and effectively enriched in the larger, static population [9].
  • Steap3 is expressed highly in hematopoietic tissues, colocalizes with the Tf cycle endosome and facilitates Tf-bound iron uptake [10].
  • In pIIb, Delta passes through the recycling endosome which is marked by Rab 11 [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Endosomes


Biological context of Endosomes


Anatomical context of Endosomes


Associations of Endosomes with chemical compounds


Gene context of Endosomes

  • Syntaxin 13, the t-SNARE required for endosome fusion, is transiently incorporated into the large oligomers via direct interactions with EEA1 [31].
  • Endosomal acidification leads to iron release, and iron is transported out of the endosome through the activity of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, formerly Nramp2), a transmembrane iron transporter that functions only at low pH [32].
  • The same motif is also found in Hrs and recruits the ESCRT I complex to endosomes through direct interaction with one of its components called TSG101 [33].
  • Compartmentalization of TNF receptor 1 signaling: internalized TNF receptosomes as death signaling vesicles [34].
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that CCR5 and CXCR4, after binding to their ligands, are internalized into vesicles that qualify as early endosomes as indicated by colocalization with transferrin receptors [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Endosomes


  1. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome interacts with early endosomes and is accessible to exogenously administered transferrin. Clemens, D.L., Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Ligand-mediated autophosphorylation activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor during internalization. Lai, W.H., Cameron, P.H., Doherty, J.J., Posner, B.I., Bergeron, J.J. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Live Salmonella recruits N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein on phagosomal membrane and promotes fusion with early endosome. Mukherjee, K., Siddiqi, S.A., Hashim, S., Raje, M., Basu, S.K., Mukhopadhyay, A. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activation stimulates endosome fusion in vivo. Biwersi, J., Emans, N., Verkman, A.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Simmons, G., Gosalia, D.N., Rennekamp, A.J., Reeves, J.D., Diamond, S.L., Bates, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Abeta localization in abnormal endosomes: association with earliest Abeta elevations in AD and Down syndrome. Cataldo, A.M., Petanceska, S., Terio, N.B., Peterhoff, C.M., Durham, R., Mercken, M., Mehta, P.D., Buxbaum, J., Haroutunian, V., Nixon, R.A. Neurobiol. Aging (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Transepithelial transport of immunoglobulins. Mostov, K.E. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Vacuolar and plasma membrane proton-adenosinetriphosphatases. Nelson, N., Harvey, W.R. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Ligands for clathrin-mediated endocytosis are differentially sorted into distinct populations of early endosomes. Lakadamyali, M., Rust, M.J., Zhuang, X. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a ferrireductase required for efficient transferrin-dependent iron uptake in erythroid cells. Ohgami, R.S., Campagna, D.R., Greer, E.L., Antiochos, B., McDonald, A., Chen, J., Sharp, J.J., Fujiwara, Y., Barker, J.E., Fleming, M.D. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Asymmetric Rab 11 endosomes regulate delta recycling and specify cell fate in the Drosophila nervous system. Emery, G., Hutterer, A., Berdnik, D., Mayer, B., Wirtz-Peitz, F., Gaitan, M.G., Knoblich, J.A. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The ABCA1 transporter modulates late endocytic trafficking: insights from the correction of the genetic defect in Tangier disease. Neufeld, E.B., Stonik, J.A., Demosky, S.J., Knapper, C.L., Combs, C.A., Cooney, A., Comly, M., Dwyer, N., Blanchette-Mackie, J., Remaley, A.T., Santamarina-Fojo, S., Brewer, H.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and its cell wall complex induce a novel lysosomal membrane protein, SIMPLE, that bridges the missing link between lipopolysaccharide and p53-inducible gene, LITAF(PIG7), and estrogen-inducible gene, EET-1. Moriwaki, Y., Begum, N.A., Kobayashi, M., Matsumoto, M., Toyoshima, K., Seya, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Fusions of anthrax toxin lethal factor to the ADP-ribosylation domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A are potent cytotoxins which are translocated to the cytosol of mammalian cells. Arora, N., Klimpel, K.R., Singh, Y., Leppla, S.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. A hydrophobic domain in the large envelope protein is essential for fusion of duck hepatitis B virus at the late endosome. Chojnacki, J., Anderson, D.A., Grgacic, E.V. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of ribosomes in Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsid uncoating. Singh, I., Helenius, A. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Visualization of the target-membrane-inserted fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus by combined electron microscopy and crystallography. Gibbons, D.L., Erk, I., Reilly, B., Navaza, J., Kielian, M., Rey, F.A., Lepault, J. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Phosphorylation of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor required for its efficient transcytosis. Casanova, J.E., Breitfeld, P.P., Ross, S.A., Mostov, K.E. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Hrs, a FYVE finger protein localized to early endosomes, is implicated in vesicular traffic and required for ventral folding morphogenesis. Komada, M., Soriano, P. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Amphiphysin IIm, a novel amphiphysin II isoform, is required for macrophage phagocytosis. Gold, E.S., Morrissette, N.S., Underhill, D.M., Guo, J., Bassetti, M., Aderem, A. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The exogenous pathway for antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class II and CD1 molecules. Watts, C. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Cycling of the integral membrane glycoprotein, LEP100, between plasma membrane and lysosomes: kinetic and morphological analysis. Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Fambrough, D.M. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. TIP47: a cargo selection device for mannose 6-phosphate receptor trafficking. Díaz, E., Pfeffer, S.R. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of receptor recycling and degradation by the endosomal kinesin KIF16B. Hoepfner, S., Severin, F., Cabezas, A., Habermann, B., Runge, A., Gillooly, D., Stenmark, H., Zerial, M. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Rabaptin-5 is a direct effector of the small GTPase Rab5 in endocytic membrane fusion. Stenmark, H., Vitale, G., Ullrich, O., Zerial, M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Penetration of Semliki Forest virus from acidic prelysosomal vacuoles. Marsh, M., Bolzau, E., Helenius, A. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Late endosomes derive from early endosomes by maturation. Stoorvogel, W., Strous, G.J., Geuze, H.J., Oorschot, V., Schwartz, A.L. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Common signals control low density lipoprotein receptor sorting in endosomes and the Golgi complex of MDCK cells. Matter, K., Whitney, J.A., Yamamoto, E.M., Mellman, I. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific proteolysis regulates fusion between endocytic compartments in Xenopus oocytes. Opresko, L.K., Karpf, R.A. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytoplasmic coat proteins involved in endosome function. Whitney, J.A., Gomez, M., Sheff, D., Kreis, T.E., Mellman, I. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Oligomeric complexes link Rab5 effectors with NSF and drive membrane fusion via interactions between EEA1 and syntaxin 13. McBride, H.M., Rybin, V., Murphy, C., Giner, A., Teasdale, R., Zerial, M. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Transferrin receptor is necessary for development of erythrocytes and the nervous system. Levy, J.E., Jin, O., Fujiwara, Y., Kuo, F., Andrews, N.C. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Hrs function: viruses provide the clue. Clague, M.J., Urbé, S. Trends Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Compartmentalization of TNF receptor 1 signaling: internalized TNF receptosomes as death signaling vesicles. Schneider-Brachert, W., Tchikov, V., Neumeyer, J., Jakob, M., Winoto-Morbach, S., Held-Feindt, J., Heinrich, M., Merkel, O., Ehrenschwender, M., Adam, D., Mentlein, R., Kabelitz, D., Schütze, S. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. HIV coreceptor downregulation as antiviral principle: SDF-1alpha-dependent internalization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 contributes to inhibition of HIV replication. Amara, A., Gall, S.L., Schwartz, O., Salamero, J., Montes, M., Loetscher, P., Baggiolini, M., Virelizier, J.L., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Hrs regulates endosome membrane invagination and tyrosine kinase receptor signaling in Drosophila. Lloyd, T.E., Atkinson, R., Wu, M.N., Zhou, Y., Pennetta, G., Bellen, H.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. In AtT20 and HeLa cells brefeldin A induces the fusion of tubular endosomes and changes their distribution and some of their endocytic properties. Tooze, J., Hollinshead, M. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. VAMP-7 mediates vesicular transport from endosomes to lysosomes. Advani, R.J., Yang, B., Prekeris, R., Lee, K.C., Klumperman, J., Scheller, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Sorting mechanisms regulating membrane protein traffic in the apical transcytotic pathway of polarized MDCK cells. Gibson, A., Futter, C.E., Maxwell, S., Allchin, E.H., Shipman, M., Kraehenbuhl, J.P., Domingo, D., Odorizzi, G., Trowbridge, I.S., Hopkins, C.R. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Distribution of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes in the endocytic pathway of normal rat kidney cells. Ludwig, T., Griffiths, G., Hoflack, B. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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