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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation and interaction of ATF2 with the coactivator ASC-2 are responsive for granulocytic differentiation by retinoic acid.

Terminal differentiation of hematopoietic cells follows a precisely orchestrated program of transcriptional regulatory events at the promoters of both lineage-specific and ubiquitous genes. Here we show that the transcription factor ATF2 is associated with the induction of granulocytic differentiation, and the molecular interaction of ATF2 with a tissue-specific coactivator activating signal cointegator-2 (ASC-2) potentiates the differentiation procedure. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) induced the phosphorylation and expression of ATF2 in the early and middle phase of granulocyte differentiation, respectively. The activation of granulocyte-specific gene expression is increased with the concerted action of another basic regionleucine zipper factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPalpha), and ASC-2, which function in a cooperative manner. The interaction between ATF2 and C/EBPalpha in RA-treated cells was enhanced by the ectopic expression of ASC-2. ATF2- mediated transactivation was also increased by co-transfection of ASC-2. This resulted from the direct protein interaction that the N-terminal transactivation domain of ATF2 interacts with the central region of ASC-2. Furthermore, the molecular interaction of ATF2 and ASC-2 was stimulated by RA treatment and inhibited by p38beta kinase inhibitor. Taking these results together, these results suggest that the differentiation-dependent expression and phosphorylation of ATF2 protein physically and functionally interacts with C/EBPalpha and coativator ASC-2 and synergizes to induce target gene transcription during granulocytic differentiation.[1]


  1. Activation and interaction of ATF2 with the coactivator ASC-2 are responsive for granulocytic differentiation by retinoic acid. Hong, S., Choi, H.M., Park, M.J., Kim, Y.H., Choi, Y.H., Kim, H.H., Choi, Y.H., Cheong, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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