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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of gossypol in association with chromium protoporphyrin on heme metabolic enzymes.

Gossypol prevents the liberation of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin and exerts a hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. In excessive dosages of gossypol, an extreme burden is placed upon the respiratory and circulatory organs owing to the reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Chromium protoporphyrin (CrPP) has been shown to either competitively suppress or to significantly ameliorate a variety of naturally occurring or experimentally induced forms of jaundice in animals and man. In this communication, a novel tissue dependent response to gossypol (50 micromol/kg bw) and gossypol in association with CrPP (50 micromol/kg bw) is described. Our results revealed that gossypol stimulated the hepatic, splenic, and renal delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S) activity, the heme biosynthetic enzyme, and simultaneous administration of CrPP and gossypol synergized the gossypol-mediated increase of ALA-S activity. Gossypol was found to be a potent stimulator of heme oxygenase (HMOX) activity in rat liver and kidney to varying degrees. This tissue response contrasted with that of the spleen, where gossypol decreased the activity of the enzyme. In consonance with the increased hepatic and renal HMOX activity, a marked increase was observed in total serum bilirubin concentration in gossypol treated rats. When rats were given CrPP simultaneously with gossypol, the gossypol mediated increase in hepatic and renal HMOX activity was effectively blocked. Furthermore, the increase in enzymatic activity was accomplished by a decline in the total microsomal protein content on gossypol administration. These findings emphasize the toxic effect of gossypol in eliciting increased heme degradation by stimulating HMOX activity in the liver and the kidney and the potential usefulness of CrPP in experimental and perhaps clinical conditions in which hyperbilirubinemia occurs.[1]


  1. Effect of gossypol in association with chromium protoporphyrin on heme metabolic enzymes. Aneja, R., Dass, S.K., Prakash, S., Chandra, R. Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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