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Chemical Compound Review

5-Aminolevulinate     5-amino-4-oxo-pentanoic acid

Synonyms: Aladerm, Kerastick, Aminolevulinic, delta-ALA, CHEMBL601, ...
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Disease relevance of delta-aminolevulinic acid


Psychiatry related information on delta-aminolevulinic acid


High impact information on delta-aminolevulinic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of delta-aminolevulinic acid


Biological context of delta-aminolevulinic acid


Anatomical context of delta-aminolevulinic acid

  • In three families (designated CRIM-negative type 2), symptomatic patients had increased urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid and PBG, and normal levels of erythrocyte PBG-deaminase activity [19].
  • In the presence of 25 muM iron, protoporphyrin was detected in protoporphyria cell lines when the concentration of ALA in the medium reached 50 muM, but not in normal lines [20].
  • The activity of a new protease which is considered to be engaged in the regulation of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase levels in mitochondria of erythroblasts was shown to be in normal range in erythroblasts of the patients [21].
  • We previously demonstrated an alternate pathway for the biosynthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in bovine liver mitochondria and of tetrapyrroles in suspensions of rat hepatocytes (1980. J. Biol. Chem. 255: 3742; 1981. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 78: 5335) [22].
  • Treatment of cultures with ALA and with the iron chelator, CaMgEDTA significantly increased the level of protoporphyrin IX in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from normal subjects, while the same treatment failed to produce an increase in protoporphyrin IX in cell preparations from EPP patients [23].

Associations of delta-aminolevulinic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of delta-aminolevulinic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of delta-aminolevulinic acid


  1. X-linked pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia due to a Thr388-to-Ser substitution in erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase. Cox, T.C., Bottomley, S.S., Wiley, J.S., Bawden, M.J., Matthews, C.S., May, B.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Lead poisoning due to hai ge fen. The porphyrin content of individual erythrocytes. Markowitz, S.B., Nunez, C.M., Klitzman, S., Munshi, A.A., Kim, W.S., Eisinger, J., Landrigan, P.J. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Accumulation of protoporphyrin IX from delta-aminolevulinic acid in bovine skin fibroblasts with hereditary erythropoietic protoporphyria. A gene-dosage effect. Sassa, S., Schwartz, S., Ruth, G. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. An experimental model of postnatal jaundice in the suckling rat. Suppression of induced hyperbilirubinemia by Sn-protoporphyrin. Drummond, G.S., Kappas, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Photodynamic ablation of high-grade dysplasia and early cancer in Barrett's esophagus by means of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Gossner, L., Stolte, M., Sroka, R., Rick, K., May, A., Hahn, E.G., Ell, C. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Homozygous acute intermittent porphyria in a 7-year-old boy with massive excretions of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. Hessels, J., Voortman, G., van der Wagen, A., van der Elzen, C., Scheffer, H., Zuijderhoudt, F.M. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. delta-Aminolevulinic acid-synthesizing enzymes need an RNA moiety for activity. Huang, D.D., Wang, W.Y., Gough, S.P., Kannangara, C.G. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Porphyrin induction: equivalent effects of 5alphaH and 5betaH steroids in chick embryo liver cells. Stephens, J.K., Fischer, P.W., Marks, G.S. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. A primitive pathway of porphyrin biosynthesis and enzymology in Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Ishida, T., Yu, L., Akutsu, H., Ozawa, K., Kawanishi, S., Seto, A., Inubushi, T., Sano, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Pyridoxine refractory X-linked sideroblastic anemia caused by a point mutation in the erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene. Furuyama, K., Fujita, H., Nagai, T., Yomogida, K., Munakata, H., Kondo, M., Kimura, A., Kuramoto, A., Hayashi, N., Yamamoto, M. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Transformation of glutamate to delta-aminolevulinic acid by soluble extracts of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and other oxygenic prokaryotes. Rieble, S., Beale, S.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Purification of glutamyl-tRNA reductase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Rieble, S., Beale, S.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Heme biosynthesis in Rhizobium. Identification of a cloned gene coding for delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase from Rhizobium meliloti. Leong, S.A., Ditta, G.S., Helinski, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel outer membrane lipoprotein, LolB (HemM), involved in the LolA (p20)-dependent localization of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. Matsuyama, S., Yokota, N., Tokuda, H. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Modulation of the RNA-binding activity of a regulatory protein by iron in vitro: switching between enzymatic and genetic function? Constable, A., Quick, S., Gray, N.K., Hentze, M.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia: linkage to phosphoglycerate kinase at Xq13. Raskind, W.H., Wijsman, E., Pagon, R.A., Cox, T.C., Bawden, M.J., May, B.K., Bird, T.D. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Hypoxic up-regulation of erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase. Hofer, T., Wenger, R.H., Kramer, M.F., Ferreira, G.C., Gassmann, M. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel function of Stat1 and Stat3 proteins in erythropoietin-induced erythroid differentiation of a human leukemia cell line. Kirito, K., Uchida, M., Takatoku, M., Nakajima, K., Hirano, T., Miura, Y., Komatsu, N. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Acute intermittent porphyria: characterization of a novel mutation in the structural gene for porphobilinogen deaminase. Demonstration of noncatalytic enzyme intermediates stabilized by bound substrate. Desnick, R.J., Ostasiewicz, L.T., Tishler, P.A., Mustajoki, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Study of factors causing excess protoporphyrin accumulation in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with protoporphyria. Bloomer, J.R., Brenner, D.A., Mahoney, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthetase in erythroblasts of patients with pyridoxine-responsive anemia. Hypercatabolism caused by the increased susceptibility to the controlling protease. Aoki, Y., Muranaka, S., Nakabayashi, K., Ueda, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Biosynthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid and heme from 4,5-dioxovalerate in the rat. Morton, K.A., Kushner, J.P., Straka, J.G., Burnham, B.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies in porphyria: functional evidence for a partial deficiency of ferrochelatase activity in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Sassa, S., Zalar, G.L., Poh-Fitzpatrick, M.B., Anderson, K.E., Kappas, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Fecal porphyrin abnormalities in a patient with features of Rotor's syndrome. Evans, J., Lefkowitch, J., Lim, C.K., Billing, B. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Biosynthesis of porphyrins and heme from gamma, delta-dioxovalerate by intact hepatocytes. Morton, K.A., Kushner, J.P., Burnham, B.F., Horton, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Intracellular kinetics of iron in reticulocytes: evidence for endosome involvement in iron targeting to mitochondria. Zhang, A.S., Sheftel, A.D., Ponka, P. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. A mouse model of familial porphyria cutanea tarda. Phillips, J.D., Jackson, L.K., Bunting, M., Franklin, M.R., Thomas, K.R., Levy, J.E., Andrews, N.C., Kushner, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Constitutive expression of the yeast HEM1 gene is actually a composite of activation and repression. Keng, T., Guarente, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. A promoter mutation in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causes X-linked sideroblastic anemia. Bekri, S., May, A., Cotter, P.D., Al-Sabah, A.I., Guo, X., Masters, G.S., Bishop, D.F. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Escherichia coli glutamyl-tRNA reductase. Trapping the thioester intermediate. Schauer, S., Chaturvedi, S., Randau, L., Moser, J., Kitabatake, M., Lorenz, S., Verkamp, E., Schubert, W.D., Nakayashiki, T., Murai, M., Wall, K., Thomann, H.U., Heinz, D.W., Inokuchi, H., Söll, D., Jahn, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of the yeast HEM2 gene and transcriptional regulation of COX5 and COR1 by heme. Myers, A.M., Crivellone, M.D., Koerner, T.J., Tzagoloff, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Studies in porphyria. IV. Expression of the gene defect of acute intermittent porphyria in cultured human skin fibroblasts and amniotic cells: prenatal diagnosis of the porphyric trait. Sassa, S., Solish, G., Levere, R.D., Kappas, A. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Delta-aminolevulinic acid transport by intestinal and renal peptide transporters and its physiological and clinical implications. Döring, F., Walter, J., Will, J., Föcking, M., Boll, M., Amasheh, S., Clauss, W., Daniel, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Selective accumulation of endogenously produced porphyrins in a liver metastasis model in rats. Van Hillegersberg, R., Van den Berg, J.W., Kort, W.J., Terpstra, O.T., Wilson, J.H. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase is located on the X chromosome. Cox, T.C., Bawden, M.J., Abraham, N.G., Bottomley, S.S., May, B.K., Baker, E., Chen, L.Z., Sutherland, G.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis. Cotter, P.D., May, A., Li, L., Al-Sabah, A.I., Fitzsimons, E.J., Cazzola, M., Bishop, D.F. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
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