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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Fate and effects of the insecticide-miticide chlorfenapyr in outdoor aquatic microcosms.

The concentrations of chlorfenapyr in water and sediment in a lentic pond following early and late applications in a Florida crop treatment program were predicted using PRZM and EXAMS modeling and incorporating 30 years of actual rainfall data. An outdoor microcosm study was also conducted to determine the fate of chlorfenapyr and its effects on zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, and fish in a freshwater system under exposure conditions representing simulated surface runoff and/or spray drift. The microcosm design used a regression model with five treatments (i.e., 300 microg/L spray, 30 microg/L spray, 15 microg/L spray and 30 microg/L runoff, 1.2 microg/L spray and 2.5 microg/L runoff, 30 microg/L runoff) plus a control. Chlorfenapyr was applied as an aqueous suspension concentrate (36% a.i.) to six microcosm tanks (30.9 m3). The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) for zooplankton was the water concentration produced from the combination 1.2 microg/L spray and 2.5 microg/L runoff treatment. The NOEC for bluegill sunfish was the water concentration produced from the 30 microg/L runoff, which was significantly higher than the exposure concentrations from the lowest combination treatment. Chlorfenapyr was more toxic via spray to the water than via an exposure simulating surface runoff. The 96-h time weighted average concentrations (TWAs) from the lowest joint treatment and the 30 microg/L runoff treatment in the microcosm study were similar to model-predicted water 96-h TWA concentrations from early and late applications. The toxicity data from laboratory and microcosm studies along with water exposure data indicate low hazard to zooplankton species in the water column. Although chlorfenapyr remained in sediment, TWAs concentrations from the microcosm study along with model-predicted concentrations indicate low hazard to benthic invertebrate species based on acute toxicity to amphipods in the laboratory. Results from this assessment indicate that with appropriate measures to mitigate spray drift to shallow water bodies, applications of chlorfenapyr do not present a hazard to aquatic organisms during labeled uses.[1]


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