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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vivo hyperglycemia and its effect on Glut-1 expression in the embryonic heart.

BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes exposes embryos to periods of hyperglycemia. Glucose is important for normal cardiogenesis, and Glut-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in the embryo. METHODS: Pregnant mice were exposed to 6 or 12 hr hyperglycemia during organogenesis using intraperitoneal (IP) injections of D-glucose on gestational day (GD) 9.5 (plug = GD 0.5). Embryos were examined for morphology and total cardiac protein, and embryonic hearts were evaluated for Glut-1 protein and mRNA expression immediately after treatment (GD 9.75, GD 10.0), as well as on GD 10.5 and GD 12. 5. RESULTS: IP glucose injections were effective in producing sustained maternal hyperglycemia. Maternal hyperglycemia for 6 or 12 hr on GD 9.5, followed by normoglycemia, produced a decrease in overall size and total cardiac protein in embryos evaluated on GD 10.5 but no difference on GD 12. 5. Cardiac Glut-1 expression was immediately upregulated in embryos exposed to 6 or 12 hr maternal hyperglycemia. On GD 10.5, cardiac Glut-1 expression was not different in embryos exposed to maternal hyperglycemia for 6 hr but was downregulated in embryos exposed for 12 hr. On GD 12.5, cardiac Glut-1 expression in embryos exposed to maternal hyperglycemia on GD 9.5 for 6 or 12 hr, followed by normoglycemia, was not different from controls. The temporal pattern was the same for Glut-1 protein and mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia-induced alterations in Glut-1 expression likely interfere with balance of glucose available to the embryonic heart that may affect cardiac morphogenesis.[1]


  1. In vivo hyperglycemia and its effect on Glut-1 expression in the embryonic heart. Joyner, N.T., Smoak, I.W. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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