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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thermodynamic and biophysical characterization of cytochrome P450 BioI from Bacillus subtilis.

Cytochrome P450 BioI (CYP107H1) from Bacillus subtilis is involved in the early stages of biotin synthesis. Previous studies have indicated that BioI can hydroxylate fatty acids and may also perform an acyl bond cleavage reaction [Green, A. J., Rivers, S. L., Cheesman, M., Reid, G. A., Quaroni, L. G., Macdonald, I. D. G., Chapman, S. K., and Munro, A. W. (2001) J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 6, 523-533. Stok, J. E., and De Voss, J. J. (2000) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 384, 351-360]. Here we show novel binding features of P450 BioI--specifically that it binds steroids (including testosterone and progesterone) and polycyclic azole drugs with similar affinity to that for fatty acids (K(d) values in the range 0.1-160 microM). Sigmoidal binding curves for titration of BioI with azole drugs suggests a cooperative process in this case. BioI as isolated from Escherichia coli is in a mixed heme iron spin state. Alteration of the pH of the buffer system affects the heme iron spin-state equilibrium (higher pH increasing the low-spin content). Steroids containing a carbonyl group at the C(3) position induce a shift in heme iron spin-state equilibrium toward the low-spin form, whereas fatty acids produce a shift toward the high-spin form. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies confirm the heme iron spin-state perturbation inferred from optical titrations with steroids and fatty acids. Potentiometric studies demonstrate that the heme iron reduction potential becomes progressively more positive as the proportion of high-spin heme iron increases (potential for low-spin BioI = -330 +/- 1 mV; for BioI as purified from E. coli (mixed-spin) = 228 +/- 2 mV; for palmitoleic acid-bound BioI = -199 +/- 2 mV). Extraction of bound substrate-like molecule from purified BioI indicates palmitic acid to be bound. Differential scanning calorimetry studies indicate that the BioI protein structure is stabilized by binding of steroids and bulky azole drugs, a result confirmed by resonance Raman studies and by analysis of disruption of BioI secondary and tertiary structure by the chaotrope guanidinium chloride. Molecular modeling of the BioI structure indicates that a disulfide bond is present between Cys250 and Cys275. Calorimetry shows that structural stability of the protein was altered by addition of the reductant dithiothreitol, suggesting that the disulfide is important to integrity of BioI structure.[1]


  1. Thermodynamic and biophysical characterization of cytochrome P450 BioI from Bacillus subtilis. Lawson, R.J., Leys, D., Sutcliffe, M.J., Kemp, C.A., Cheesman, M.R., Smith, S.J., Clarkson, J., Smith, W.E., Haq, I., Perkins, J.B., Munro, A.W. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
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