The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Sputolysin     (2R,3R)-1,4-bis- sulfanylbutane-2,3-diol

Synonyms: Reductacryl, Dithiothreitol, CHEBI:42170, D9163_SIGMA, D9779_SIGMA, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Dithiothreitol

  • Linear simian virus 40 (SV40) chromosomes were prepared by Eco R1 nuclease cleavage of the circular SV40 chromosomes released from virions with dithiothreitol at pH 9,8 [1].
  • METHODS: Mucosa-associated bacteria were isolated, after dithiothreitol mucolysis, from biopsy samples obtained at colonoscopy (Crohn's disease, n = 14 patients; ulcerative colitis, n = 21; noninflamed controls, n = 24) and at surgical resection (colon cancer, n = 21) [2].
  • Plasma samples from normal subjects, children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), and adults with vasculitis and vWF prepared from endothelium were treated with DTT before vWF assay. vWF in HUS and vasculitis resembled the endothelial form in being resistant to reduction [3].
  • Also, we show that, contrary to earlier results, ompL null mutations alone do not result in partial DTT sensitivity or partial motility, nor do they appreciably affect bacterial growth rates or block propagation of the male-specific bacteriophage M13 [4].
  • Using influenza hemagglutinin (HA0) and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein as model proteins, we have analyzed the effects of dithiothreitol (DTT) on conformational maturation and transport of glycoproteins in the secretory pathway of living cells [5].

Psychiatry related information on Dithiothreitol

  • The reaction times for the complete conversion of DHAA to AA at room temperatures were 150, 120, 90 and 75 min for 1, 2, 4 and 8 mmol DTT per mmol of DHAA, respectively [6].
  • The addition of the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol inhibited the cell-free conversion reaction with an IC50 of 2-2.5 mM [7].
  • The effect of NaN(3) upon the response to serotonin, which was not blocked by either glutathione ethyl ester (GTEE) or dithiothreitol (DTT), was similar in platelets obtained from patients with Alzheimer's disease and from age- and gender-matched controls [8].

High impact information on Dithiothreitol

  • Dithiothreitol, a thiol reductant, reversed the analgesia induced by cupric ion and antagonized analgesia induced by morphine [9].
  • A marked dithiothreitol-induced increase in the monodeiodination by fetal sheep liver homogenates suggests that the characteristically low conversion in fetal tissues is related more to the status of sulfhydryl groups than to a deficiency of the monodeiodinating enzyme [10].
  • This activity was neutralized by an antibody directed against low molecular mass, (14 kD) human synovial PLA2 and dithiothreitol [11].
  • Perturbation of the folding environment in intact cells with the reducing agent dithiothreitol or the trimming glucosidase inhibitor N-7-oxadecyl-deoxynojirimycin prolongs the presence of mAb-reactive K(b) heavy chains [12].
  • It could not be eluted by high-ionic-strength saline, EDTA, dithiothreitol, or either polar or nonpolar detergents, but was released into solution when isolated glomerular basement membrane was digested by highly purified bacterial collagenase [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dithiothreitol


Biological context of Dithiothreitol


Anatomical context of Dithiothreitol


Associations of Dithiothreitol with other chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: One hundred percent reactivation of ATPase following inhibition in vivo by omeprazole or its enantiomers was seen with dithiothreitol and 89% with glutathione [28].
  • However, its effects on T lymphocyte proliferation can be reversed by reducing agents like 2-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol, suggesting that oxidative substances are contained in mucosal supernatants [29].
  • Because Tg has multiple disulfides, as well as glycans, we tested a brief exposure of live thyrocytes to dithiothreitol, which resulted in quantitative aggregation of nascent Tg, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE of cells lysed without further reduction [30].
  • Therefore, we believe that these four proteins also effec the temperature-dependent gelation and aggregation of crude sucrose extracts pulmonary macrophages containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol [31].
  • This defect could be rescued by the addition of either oxidized DTT or cystine or by multicopy expression of dsbA, a known periplasmic disulfide oxidase [32].

Gene context of Dithiothreitol

  • The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin [33].
  • In cells expressing the NR1-NR2B, -NR2C, and -NR2D channels DTT elicited only a slowly developing, persistent potentiation and increased the deactivation time course [19].
  • Null mutations in dsbC were obtained using a screen for dithiothreitol (DTT)-sensitive mutants and were shown to result in the accumulation of reduced forms of a variety of disulfide bond-containing periplasmic proteins [32].
  • APR-mediated APS reduction is dependent on dithiothreitol, has a pH optimum of 8.5, is stimulated by high ionic strength, and is sensitive to inactivation by 5'-adenosinemonophosphate (5'-AMP) [34].
  • Thus, diamide treatment of nuclear extracts strongly reduces the binding of NFI proteins, and the addition of higher concentrations of dithiothreitol to nuclear extracts from TG-treated cells restores NFI-DNA binding to levels in extracts from untreated cells [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dithiothreitol

  • Examination of dithiothreitol reduced samples before and after treatment with Reptilase or thrombin revealed that the Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains could release the A and B peptides, respectively [36].
  • DTT modification of the ELISA assay may be useful as a marker of disease severity in conditions associated with endothelial cell damage [3].
  • When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased [20].
  • Since dithiothreitol-treated eggs did not elevate a fertilization membrane, scanning electron microscopy could be used to directly observe modifications in the egg plasma membrane after fertilization [37].
  • Because in quantitative bioassays fertilization was found to be inhibited by treatment of eggs with 5 mM dithiothreitol, we undertook more direct studies of the effect of reduction on properties of the receptor [38].


  1. Mobility of histones on the chromosome of simian virus 40. Beard, P. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Enhanced Escherichia coli adherence and invasion in Crohn's disease and colon cancer. Martin, H.M., Campbell, B.J., Hart, C.A., Mpofu, C., Nayar, M., Singh, R., Englyst, H., Williams, H.F., Rhodes, J.M. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Factor VIII von Willebrand protein in haemolytic uraemic syndrome and systemic vasculitides. Rose, P.E., Struthers, G.S., Robertson, M., Kavi, J., Chant, I., Taylor, C.M. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The OmpL porin does not modulate redox potential in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli. Sardesai, A.A., Genevaux, P., Schwager, F., Ang, D., Georgopoulos, C. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Membrane glycoprotein folding, oligomerization and intracellular transport: effects of dithiothreitol in living cells. Tatu, U., Braakman, I., Helenius, A. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Enzymatically validated liquid chromatographic method for the determination of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in fruit and vegetables. Gökmen, V., Kahraman, N., Demir, N., Acar, J. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The importance of the disulfide bond in prion protein conversion. Herrmann, L.M., Caughey, B. Neuroreport (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid inhibition by sodium azide of the phosphoinositide-mediated calcium response to serotonin stimulation in human platelets: preservation in Alzheimer's disease. Hedin, H.L., Eriksson, S., Fowler, C.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Opiate receptor function may be modulated through an oxidation-reduction mechanism. Marzullo, G., Hine, B. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Sulfhydryl groups and the monodeiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. Chopra, I.J. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Antigen-induced generation of lyso-phospholipids in human airways. Chilton, F.H., Averill, F.J., Hubbard, W.C., Fonteh, A.N., Triggiani, M., Liu, M.C. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Intermediates in the assembly and degradation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules probed with free heavy chain-specific monoclonal antibodies. Machold, R.P., Ploegh, H.L. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Amyloid P-component is a constituent of normal human glomerular basement membrane. Dyck, R.F., Lockwood, C.M., Kershaw, M., McHugh, N., Duance, V.C., Baltz, M.L., Pepys, M.B. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro production of immunosuppressive factors by murine sarcoma virus-transformed mouse fibroblasts. Mizel, S.B., DeLarco, J.E., Todaro, G.J., Farrar, W.L., Hilfiker, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Ultrasensitivity and heavy-metal selectivity of the allosterically modulated MerR transcription complex. Ralston, D.M., O'Halloran, T.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Production of native, correctly folded bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor by Escherichia coli. Marks, C.B., Vasser, M., Ng, P., Henzel, W., Anderson, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. NK-lysin, a disulfide-containing effector peptide of T-lymphocytes, is reduced and inactivated by human thioredoxin reductase. Implication for a protective mechanism against NK-lysin cytotoxicity. Andersson, M., Holmgren, A., Spyrou, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. An iron-sulfur center and a free radical in the active anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli. Mulliez, E., Fontecave, M., Gaillard, J., Reichard, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. NMDA receptor channels: subunit-specific potentiation by reducing agents. Köhr, G., Eckardt, S., Lüddens, H., Monyer, H., Seeburg, P.H. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states. Wood, J.G., Davenport, H.W. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Active site mutations in yeast protein disulfide isomerase cause dithiothreitol sensitivity and a reduced rate of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Holst, B., Tachibana, C., Winther, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Purified lectin from skeletal muscle inhibits myotube formation in vitro. MacBride, R.G., Przybylski, R.J. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanism of hemolysis induced by ferriprotoporphyrin IX. Chou, A.C., Fitch, C.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of dithiothreitol on plasma membrane intramembranous particle topography in BALB/c 3T3 and simian virus-transformed 3T3 cells and plasma membrane vesicles. Scott, R.E., Maercklein, P.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Inner-ring deiodination of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the in situ perfused guinea pig placenta. Castro, M.I., Braverman, L.E., Alex, S., Wu, C.F., Emerson, C.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation and functional characterization of human intestinal mucosal lymphoid cells. Bull, D.M., Bookman, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Subunit structure of factor VIII antigen synthesized by cultured human endothelial cells. Jaffe, E.A., Nachman, R.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Restoration of acid secretion following treatment with proton pump inhibitors. Shin, J.M., Sachs, G. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Human intestinal mucosa alters T-cell reactivities. Qiao, L., Schürmann, G., Autschbach, F., Wallich, R., Meuer, S.C. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Calnexin and BiP act as sequential molecular chaperones during thyroglobulin folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Kim, P.S., Arvan, P. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Interactions of actin, myosin, and a new actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages. II. Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis. Stossel, T.P., Hartwig, J.H. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. The Escherichia coli dsbC (xprA) gene encodes a periplasmic protein involved in disulfide bond formation. Missiakas, D., Georgopoulos, C., Raina, S. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Keratinocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are heparin-binding growth factors for alveolar type II cells in fibroblast-conditioned medium. Panos, R.J., Rubin, J.S., Csaky, K.G., Aaronson, S.A., Mason, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Sulfate reduction in higher plants: molecular evidence for a novel 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase. Setya, A., Murillo, M., Leustek, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression. Nakazato, M., Chung, H.K., Ulianich, L., Grassadonia, A., Suzuki, K., Kohn, L.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Studies on the structural abnormality of fibrinogen Paris I. Mosesson, M.W., Amrani, D.L., Ménaché, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  37. Changes in the topography of the sea urchin egg after fertilization. Eddy, E.M., Shapiro, B.M. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. The biologically active form of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm is a disulfide-bonded homo-multimer. Ohlendieck, K., Partin, J.S., Lennarz, W.J. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities