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Chemical Compound Review

AGN-PC-00ANRO     17-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl- 1,2,6,7,8,9,11...

Synonyms: ARONIS001136, SureCN616350, NSC-9700, AG-B-83460, NSC9700, ...
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Disease relevance of testosterone

  • In six of six men with prostate cancer, PC-SPES decreased serum testosterone concentrations (P<0.05), and in eight of eight patients it decreased serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen [1].
  • We investigated increased production of testosterone and androstenedione in 44 women with unexplained adult-onset hirsutism, 41 of whom had normal-sized ovaries [2].
  • Preventing the conversion of testosterone to its tissue-active form, dihydrotestosterone, by inhibiting the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase could decrease the action of androgens in their target tissues; in the prostate the result might be a decrease in prostatic hyperplasia and therefore in symptoms of urinary obstruction [3].
  • Nine of 13 pubertal boys (ages 11 to 16) had moderate to severe gynecomastia and germinal aplasia, a 10-fold increase in mean (+/- S.D.) serum follicle-stimulating hormone (34.8 +/- 20.5 mlU per milliliter), a threefold increase in mean luteinizing hormone (17.8 +/- 9.8 mlU per milliliter) and reduced serum testosterone levels [4].
  • These results indicate that alcohol markedly affects testosterone metabolism independently of cirrhosis or nutritional factors [5].

Psychiatry related information on testosterone


High impact information on testosterone

  • Clearly some like relaxin and inhibin function as important hormones, and ABP, for example, probably functions importantly in transporting testosterone down the tubule [11].
  • Despite an appreciable placebo response, the higher testosterone dose resulted in further increases in scores for frequency of sexual activity and pleasure-orgasm in the Brief index of Sexual Functioning for Women (P=0.03 for both comparisons with placebo) [12].
  • We evaluated the effects of transdermal testosterone in women who had impaired sexual function after surgically induced menopause [12].
  • Lack of Ahch causes progressive degeneration of the testicular germinal epithelium independent of abnormalities in gonadotropin and testosterone production and results in male sterility [13].
  • Defects in the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone in the fetal testes by the enzyme 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) give rise to genetic males with female external genitalia [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of testosterone


Biological context of testosterone


Anatomical context of testosterone


Associations of testosterone with other chemical compounds


Gene context of testosterone


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of testosterone


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  2. Idiopathic hirsutism--an ovarian abnormality. Kirschner, M.A., Zucker, I.R., Jespersen, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Finasteride Study Group. Gormley, G.J., Stoner, E., Bruskewitz, R.C., Imperato-McGinley, J., Walsh, P.C., McConnell, J.D., Andriole, G.L., Geller, J., Bracken, B.R., Tenover, J.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Gynecomastia and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys treated with combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Sherins, R.J., Olweny, C.L., Ziegler, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of alcohol (ethanol) administration on sex-hormone metabolism in normal men. Gordon, G.G., Altman, K., Southren, A.L., Rubin, E., Lieber, C.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Androgens and the evolution of male-gender identity among male pseudohermaphrodites with 5alpha-reductase deficiency. Imperato-McGinley, J., Peterson, R.E., Gautier, T., Sturla, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Classical conditioning: induction of luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in anticipation of sexual activity. Graham, J.M., Desjardins, C. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Androgens and sexual behavior. Pardridge, W.M., Gorski, R.A., Lippe, B.M., Green, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Diagnosis of erectile impotence in diabetes mellitus. An objective and specific method. Karacan, I. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Possible subtypes of affective disorder suggested by differences in cerebral laterality and testosterone. A preliminary report. Wexler, B.E., Mason, J.W., Giller, E.L. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Nonsteroidal signals originating in the gonads. Ackland, J.F., Schwartz, N.B., Mayo, K.E., Dodson, R.E. Physiol. Rev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Transdermal testosterone treatment in women with impaired sexual function after oophorectomy. Shifren, J.L., Braunstein, G.D., Simon, J.A., Casson, P.R., Buster, J.E., Redmond, G.P., Burki, R.E., Ginsburg, E.S., Rosen, R.C., Leiblum, S.R., Caramelli, K.E., Mazer, N.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of Ahch in gonadal development and gametogenesis. Yu, R.N., Ito, M., Saunders, T.L., Camper, S.A., Jameson, J.L. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations of testicular 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3. Geissler, W.M., Davis, D.L., Wu, L., Bradshaw, K.D., Patel, S., Mendonca, B.B., Elliston, K.O., Wilson, J.D., Russell, D.W., Andersson, S. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Male hypogonadism with gynecomastia caused by late-onset deficiency of testicular 17-ketosteroid reductase. Castro-Magana, M., Angulo, M., Uy, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of virilizing adrenal tumors in hirsute women. Derksen, J., Nagesser, S.K., Meinders, A.E., Haak, H.R., van de Velde, C.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. beta-Retinoic acid inhibits and reverses testosterone-induced hyperplasia in mouse prostate organ cultures. Chopra, D.P., Wilkoff, L.J. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. The decline of androgen levels in elderly men and its clinical and therapeutic implications. Kaufman, J.M., Vermeulen, A. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Type A behavior and elevated physiological and neuroendocrine responses to cognitive tasks. Williams, R.B., Lane, J.D., Kuhn, C.M., Melosh, W., White, A.D., Schanberg, S.M. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Testosterone treatment in adolescent boys with constitutional delay in growth and development. Richman, R.A., Kirsch, L.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of androgens on the complexity of poly(A) RNA from rat prostate. Parker, M.G., Mainwaring, W.I. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Regression of mouse mammary gland anlagen in recombinants of Tfm and wild-type tissues: testosterone acts via the mesenchyme. Drews, U., Drews, U. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Synergistic interaction of testosterone and oestradiol inhibits spermatogenesis in rats. Ewing, L.L., Desjardins, C., Irby, D.C., Robaire, B. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Maternal investment. Sex differences in avian yolk hormone levels. Petrie, M., Schwabl, H., Brande-Lavridsen, N., Burke, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Partial androgen insensitivity: the Reifenstein syndrome revisited. Amrhein, J.A., Klingensmith, G.J., Walsh, P.C., McKusick, V.A., Migeon, C.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Sertoli-Leydig cell communication via an LHRH-like factor. Sharpe, R.M., Fraser, H.M., Cooper, I., Rommerts, F.F. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Serum levels of sex hormones in vulvar lichen sclerosus, and the effect of topical testosterone. Friedrich, E.G., Kalra, P.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Rapid GDP release from Gs alpha in patients with gain and loss of endocrine function. Iiri, T., Herzmark, P., Nakamoto, J.M., van Dop, C., Bourne, H.R. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Macromolecules, steroid binding and testosterone secretion by rabbit testes. Ewing, L.L., Chubb, C.E., Robaire, B. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Leuprorelin rescues polyglutamine-dependent phenotypes in a transgenic mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Katsuno, M., Adachi, H., Doyu, M., Minamiyama, M., Sang, C., Kobayashi, Y., Inukai, A., Sobue, G. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing hormone and its binding sites in the rat ovary. Mastorakos, G., Webster, E.L., Friedman, T.C., Chrousos, G.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Hormonal and cellular regulation of Sertoli cell anti-Müllerian hormone production in the postnatal mouse. Al-Attar, L., Noël, K., Dutertre, M., Belville, C., Forest, M.G., Burgoyne, P.S., Josso, N., Rey, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Hormonal markers and hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a nested case-control study among men. Yu, M.W., Yang, Y.C., Yang, S.Y., Cheng, S.W., Liaw, Y.F., Lin, S.M., Chen, C.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Coordinated interaction of neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult songbird brain. Louissaint, A., Rao, S., Leventhal, C., Goldman, S.A. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Testosterone attenuates expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by conversion to estradiol by aromatase in endothelial cells: implications in atherosclerosis. Mukherjee, T.K., Dinh, H., Chaudhuri, G., Nathan, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Decreased hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in male marathon runners. MacConnie, S.E., Barkan, A., Lampman, R.M., Schork, M.A., Beitins, I.Z. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  37. A novel testis-stimulating factor in familial male precocious puberty. Manasco, P.K., Girton, M.E., Diggs, R.L., Doppman, J.L., Feuillan, P.P., Barnes, K.M., Cutler, G.B., Loriaux, D.L., Albertson, B.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
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