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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The function of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in peptidoglycan-stimulated macrophages.

Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play a pivotal role in the macrophages in the production of proinflammatory cytokines triggered by lipopolysaccharides. However, their function in the responses of macrophages to Gram-positive bacteria is poorly understood. Even less is known about the attenuation of MAP kinase signaling in macrophages exposed to Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we have investigated the regulation of MAP kinases and the role of MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1 in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines using murine RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal macrophages after peptidoglycan stimulation. Treatment of macrophages with peptidoglycan resulted in a transient activation of JNK, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Most interestingly, MKP-1 expression was potently induced by peptidoglycan, and this induction was concurrent with MAP kinase dephosphorylation. Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide, potently blocked the induction of MKP-1 by peptidoglycan and prolonged the activation of JNK and p38. Overexpression of MKP-1 substantially attenuated the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced by peptidoglycan, whereas knockdown of MKP-1 by small interfering RNA substantially increased the production of both TNF-alpha and interleukin-1 beta. Finally, we found that in primary murine peritoneal macrophages, MKP-1 induction following peptidoglycan stimulation also coincided with inactivation of JNK and p38. Blockade of MKP-1 induction resulted in a sustained activation of both JNK and p38 in primary macrophages. Our results reveal that MKP-1 critically regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and interleukin-1 beta in RAW264.7 cells and further suggest a central role for this phosphatase in controlling the inflammatory responses of primary macrophages to Gram-positive bacterial infection.[1]


  1. The function of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in peptidoglycan-stimulated macrophages. Shepherd, E.G., Zhao, Q., Welty, S.E., Hansen, T.N., Smith, C.V., Liu, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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