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Gene Review

Il1b  -  interleukin 1 beta

Mus musculus

Synonyms: IL-1 beta, IL-1B, IL-1beta, Il-1b, Interleukin-1 beta
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Disease relevance of Il1b


Psychiatry related information on Il1b

  • Time studies with IFN-gamma and LPS/silica demonstrated that enhanced production was time dependent and that IL-1 beta was primarily cell associated [4].
  • The inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were also increased in HIV-1-associated dementia brains compared with patients without dementia (p < 0.05), but these same cytokines induced PAR-2 expression on neurons [5].
  • In this study, we analyze the tissue distribution of AGEs and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in 24-month-old Tg2576 mice, and compare the AGE distribution in these mice with a younger age group (13 months old) and a typical Alzheimer's disease patient [6].
  • The host defense mechanisms triggered by IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta differed from one another [7].
  • As anticipated, exogenous IL-1beta depressed social behavior similarly in endotoxin-responsive OuJ mice and endotoxin-resistant HeJ mice [8].

High impact information on Il1b


Chemical compound and disease context of Il1b


Biological context of Il1b

  • The BALB/c haplotype was found in 75% of wild-derived strains but was rare among conventional inbred strains (4/33 tested, one of which is DBA/1, the prototype arthritis-susceptible strain) and was associated with vigorous Il1b responses in a panel of inbred strains [17].
  • Gingival Il1b gene expression increased further and Stat6 gene expression was turned on after P. gingivalis infection in BALB/cByJ mice but not in A/J mice [18].
  • We also demonstrate that Ice, when expressed in COS cells, requires the coexpression of pro-IL-1 beta for the induction of apoptosis, which is inhibited by IL-1Ra [2].
  • Since secreted mature IL-1 beta has been detected after apoptosis, we investigated whether this cytokine, when produced endogenously, plays a role in cell death [2].
  • We propose that TNFalpha and IL-1beta transiently specialize the BM to support acute granulocytic responses and consequently promote extramedullary lymphopoiesis [19].

Anatomical context of Il1b


Associations of Il1b with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Il1b

  • In addition, electromobility gel shift assay revealed less DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB p65-containing complex in pregnant IL-1beta(-/-) mice [27].
  • Conversely, IL-1 beta stabilized the COX-2 protein without affecting its mRNA level [28].
  • Biacore experiments demonstrated that Hu007 and the type-I IL-1 receptor competed for binding to IL-1beta [29].
  • Studies using this membrane fraction from mice lacking the IL-1 type I receptor due to genomic mutations, along with studies using an IL-1 receptor antagonist. yielded data showing that IL-1beta binding with the type I receptor is a necessary event for activation of neutral sphingomyelinase [30].
  • The immunoglobulin kappa B and the laminin B2 chain kappa B-like motifs competed for the same DNA binding activity in nuclear extracts from IL-1 beta-treated GEC [31].

Enzymatic interactions of Il1b

  • Casp-1 is unique among caspases because it also directly cleaves the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 to produce bioactive cytokines [32].
  • Occludin was hyperphosphorylated by IL-1beta treatment and was inhibited by treatment with a PI3-kinase inhibitor [33].
  • Therefore, kallikrein mK13 would appear to hydrolyze pro-IL-1beta between its Leu113 and Leu114 residues [34].
  • Furthermore, NSMase-2 was found to strongly increase the ability of IL-1beta to phosphorylate JNK [35].

Regulatory relationships of Il1b


Other interactions of Il1b


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Il1b


  1. Endotoxic shock in AUF1 knockout mice mediated by failure to degrade proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Lu, J.Y., Sadri, N., Schneider, R.J. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional role of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) in IL-1 beta-converting enzyme-mediated apoptosis. Friedlander, R.M., Gagliardini, V., Rotello, R.J., Yuan, J. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Infiltration of COX-2-expressing macrophages is a prerequisite for IL-1 beta-induced neovascularization and tumor growth. Nakao, S., Kuwano, T., Tsutsumi-Miyahara, C., Ueda, S., Kimura, Y.N., Hamano, S., Sonoda, K.H., Saijo, Y., Nukiwa, T., Strieter, R.M., Ishibashi, T., Kuwano, M., Ono, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Interferon-gamma, Staphylococcus aureus, and lipopolysaccharide/silica enhance interleukin-1 beta production by human corneal cells. Shams, N.B., Sigel, M.M., Davis, R.M. Regional immunology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 induction by neuroinflammation prevents neuronal death during HIV infection. Noorbakhsh, F., Vergnolle, N., McArthur, J.C., Silva, C., Vodjgani, M., Andrade-Gordon, P., Hollenberg, M.D., Power, C. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Advanced glycation endproducts and pro-inflammatory cytokines in transgenic Tg2576 mice with amyloid plaque pathology. Münch, G., Apelt, J., Rosemarie-Kientsch-Engel, n.u.l.l., Stahl, P., Lüth, H.J., Schliebs, R. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Endogenous Interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta Are Crucial for Host Defense against Disseminated Candidiasis. Vonk, A.G., Netea, M.G., van Krieken, J.H., Iwakura, Y., van der Meer, J.W., Kullberg, B.J. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Defect in interleukin-1beta secretion prevents sickness behavior in C3H/HeJ mice. Segreti, J., Gheusi, G., Dantzer, R., Kelley, K.W., Johnson, R.W. Physiol. Behav. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Martinon, F., Tschopp, J. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Murine caspase-11, an ICE-interacting protease, is essential for the activation of ICE. Wang, S., Miura, M., Jung, Y.K., Zhu, H., Li, E., Yuan, J. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Mice deficient in IL-1 beta-converting enzyme are defective in production of mature IL-1 beta and resistant to endotoxic shock. Li, P., Allen, H., Banerjee, S., Franklin, S., Herzog, L., Johnston, C., McDowell, J., Paskind, M., Rodman, L., Salfeld, J. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. MyD88 is a key mediator of anorexia, but not weight loss, induced by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 beta. Ogimoto, K., Harris, M.K., Wisse, B.E. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Fasting prevents experimental murine colitis produced by dextran sulfate sodium and decreases interleukin-1 beta and insulin-like growth factor I messenger ribonucleic acid. Sävendahl, L., Underwood, L.E., Haldeman, K.M., Ulshen, M.H., Lund, P.K. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Cytokines in Parkinson's disease. Nagatsu, T., Mogi, M., Ichinose, H., Togari, A. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Mycobacterial cell wall components induce the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 by bovine monocytes and the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Adams, J.L., Czuprynski, C.J. Microb. Pathog. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide induces interleukin-6 expression through multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Patil, C., Rossa, C., Kirkwood, K.L. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Variation in IL-1beta gene expression is a major determinant of genetic differences in arthritis aggressivity in mice. Ohmura, K., Johnsen, A., Ortiz-Lopez, A., Desany, P., Roy, M., Besse, W., Rogus, J., Bogue, M., Puech, A., Lathrop, M., Mathis, D., Benoist, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Quantitative gene expression profiling implicates genes for susceptibility and resistance to alveolar bone loss. Hart, G.T., Shaffer, D.J., Akilesh, S., Brown, A.C., Moran, L., Roopenian, D.C., Baker, P.J. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Inflammation controls B lymphopoiesis by regulating chemokine CXCL12 expression. Ueda, Y., Yang, K., Foster, S.J., Kondo, M., Kelsoe, G. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Altered cytokine export and apoptosis in mice deficient in interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Kuida, K., Lippke, J.A., Ku, G., Harding, M.W., Livingston, D.J., Su, M.S., Flavell, R.A. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Cytokine gene expression in murine epidermal cell suspensions: interleukin 1 beta and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha are selectively expressed in Langerhans cells but are differentially regulated in culture. Heufler, C., Topar, G., Koch, F., Trockenbacher, B., Kämpgen, E., Romani, N., Schuler, G. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) processing in murine macrophages requires a structurally conserved homologue of human IL-1 beta converting enzyme. Molineaux, S.M., Casano, F.J., Rolando, A.M., Peterson, E.P., Limjuco, G., Chin, J., Griffin, P.R., Calaycay, J.R., Ding, G.J., Yamin, T.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Nitric oxide synthase is induced in tumor promoter-sensitive, but not tumor promoter-resistant, JB6 mouse epidermal cells cocultured with interferon-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells: the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Murakami, A., Kawabata, K., Koshiba, T., Gao, G., Nakamura, Y., Koshimizu, K., Ohigashi, H. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin-1 alpha, beta and tumor necrosis factor during experimental endotoxemia. Kinetics, Kupffer cell expression, and glucocorticoid effects. Chensue, S.W., Terebuh, P.D., Remick, D.G., Scales, W.E., Kunkel, S.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Ligands of macrophage scavenger receptor induce cytokine expression via differential modulation of protein kinase signaling pathways. Hsu, H.Y., Chiu, S.L., Wen, M.H., Chen, K.Y., Hua, K.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. The role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in IL-1 beta transcription. Baldassare, J.J., Bi, Y., Bellone, C.J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin-1beta deficiency results in reduced NF-kappaB levels in pregnant mice. Reznikov, L.L., Shames, B.D., Barton, H.A., Selzman, C.H., Fantuzzi, G., Kim, S.H., Johnson, S.M., Dinarello, C.A. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor induces the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and attendant prostaglandin generation requiring interleukin 10 and interleukin 1 beta in mouse cultured mast cells. Ashraf, M., Murakami, M., Kudo, I. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. IL-1beta epitope mapping using site-directed mutagenesis and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis. Lu, J., Witcher, D.R., White, M.A., Wang, X., Huang, L., Rathnachalam, R., Beals, J.M., Kuhstoss, S. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. The role of neutral sphingomyelinase in interleukin-1beta signal transduction in mouse cerebral cortex cells. Rybakina, E.G., Nalivaeva, N.N., Pivanovich, Y.U., Shanin, S.N., Kozinets, A., Korneva, E.A. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. IL-1 beta increases laminin B2 chain mRNA levels and activates NF-kappa B in rat glomerular epithelial cells. Richardson, C.A., Gordon, K.L., Couser, W.G., Bomsztyk, K. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Salmonella exploits caspase-1 to colonize Peyer's patches in a murine typhoid model. Monack, D.M., Hersh, D., Ghori, N., Bouley, D., Zychlinsky, A., Falkow, S. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. IL-1beta regulates expression of Cx32, occludin, and claudin-2 of rat hepatocytes via distinct signal transduction pathways. Yamamoto, T., Kojima, T., Murata, M., Takano, K., Go, M., Chiba, H., Sawada, N. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Tissue kallikrein mK13 is a candidate processing enzyme for the precursor of interleukin-1beta in the submandibular gland of mice. Yao, C., Karabasil, M.R., Purwanti, N., Li, X., Akamatsu, T., Kanamori, N., Hosoi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (NSMase-2) in primary rat hepatocytes modulates IL-beta-induced JNK activation. Karakashian, A.A., Giltiay, N.V., Smith, G.M., Nikolova-Karakashian, M.N. FASEB J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. BCL-3 and NF-kappaB p50 attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Wessells, J., Baer, M., Young, H.A., Claudio, E., Brown, K., Siebenlist, U., Johnson, P.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Post-transcriptional stabilization by interleukin-1beta of interleukin-6 mRNA induced by c-kit ligand and interleukin-10 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Lu-Kuo, J.M., Austen, K.F., Katz, H.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensitize macrophages to Fas ligand-induced apoptosis and IL-1 beta release. Fukui, M., Imamura, R., Umemura, M., Kawabe, T., Suda, T. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta and delta mediate the repression of gene transcription of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein induced by interleukin-1 beta. Okazaki, K., Li, J., Yu, H., Fukui, N., Sandell, L.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Nonclassical IL-1 beta secretion stimulated by P2X7 receptors is dependent on inflammasome activation and correlated with exosome release in murine macrophages. Qu, Y., Franchi, L., Nunez, G., Dubyak, G.R. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  41. X-linked susceptibility to mycobacteria is caused by mutations in NEMO impairing CD40-dependent IL-12 production. Filipe-Santos, O., Bustamante, J., Haverkamp, M.H., Vinolo, E., Ku, C.L., Puel, A., Frucht, D.M., Christel, K., von Bernuth, H., Jouanguy, E., Feinberg, J., Durandy, A., Senechal, B., Chapgier, A., Vogt, G., de Beaucoudrey, L., Fieschi, C., Picard, C., Garfa, M., Chemli, J., Bejaoui, M., Tsolia, M.N., Kutukculer, N., Plebani, A., Notarangelo, L., Bodemer, C., Geissmann, F., Israël, A., Véron, M., Knackstedt, M., Barbouche, R., Abel, L., Magdorf, K., Gendrel, D., Agou, F., Holland, S.M., Casanova, J.L. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. IL-18 regulates IL-1beta-dependent hepatic melanoma metastasis via vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Vidal-Vanaclocha, F., Fantuzzi, G., Mendoza, L., Fuentes, A.M., Anasagasti, M.J., Martín, J., Carrascal, T., Walsh, P., Reznikov, L.L., Kim, S.H., Novick, D., Rubinstein, M., Dinarello, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. Tollip regulates proinflammatory responses to interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide. Didierlaurent, A., Brissoni, B., Velin, D., Aebi, N., Tardivel, A., Käslin, E., Sirard, J.C., Angelov, G., Tschopp, J., Burns, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  44. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III secretion system plays a dual role in the regulation of caspase-1 mediated IL-1beta maturation. Galle, M., Schotte, P., Haegman, M., Wullaert, A., Yang, H.J., Jin, S., Beyaert, R. J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008) [Pubmed]
  45. Heat-shock protein 25 (Hspb1) regulates manganese superoxide dismutase through activation of Nfkb (NF-kappaB). Yi, M.J., Park, S.H., Cho, H.N., Yong Chung, H., Kim, J.I., Cho, C.K., Lee, S.J., Lee, Y.S. Radiat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  46. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits phospholamban gene expression in cultured cardiomyocytes. McTiernan, C.F., Lemster, B.H., Frye, C., Brooks, S., Combes, A., Feldman, A.M. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  47. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits the production of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by blocking contact-mediated activation of monocytes by T lymphocytes. Hyka, N., Dayer, J.M., Modoux, C., Kohno, T., Edwards, C.K., Roux-Lombard, P., Burger, D. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  48. Tumor necrosis factor alpha as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for ovarian cancer: monokine induction of tumor cell proliferation and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Wu, S., Boyer, C.M., Whitaker, R.S., Berchuck, A., Wiener, J.R., Weinberg, J.B., Bast, R.C. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  49. In situ hybridization analysis of synovial and systemic cytokine messenger RNA expression in superantigen-mediated Staphylococcus aureus arthritis. Zhao, Y.X., Ljungdahl, A., Olsson, T., Tarkowski, A. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
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