The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

ClC-3 chloride channels facilitate endosomal acidification and chloride accumulation.

We investigated the involvement of ClC-3 chloride channels in endosomal acidification by measurement of endosomal pH and chloride concentration [Cl-] in control versus ClC-3-deficient hepatocytes and in control versus ClC-3-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Endosomes were labeled with pH or [Cl-]-sensing fluorescent transferrin ( Tf), which targets to early/recycling endosomes, or alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), which targets to late endosomes. In pulse label-chase experiments, [Cl-] was 19 mM just after internalization in alpha2M-labeled endosomes in primary cultures of hepatocytes from wild-type mice, increasing to 58 mM over 45 min, whereas pH decreased from 7.1 to 5. 4. Endosomal acidification and [Cl-] accumulation were significantly impaired in hepatocytes from ClC-3 knock-out mice, with [Cl-] increasing from 16 to 43 mM and pH decreasing from 7.1 to 6. 0. Acidification and Cl- accumulation were blocked by bafilomycin. In Tf-labeled endosomes, [Cl-] was 46 mM in wild-type versus 35 mM in ClC-3-deficient hepatocytes at 15 min after internalization, with corresponding pH of 6.1 versus 6. 5. Approximately 4-fold increased Cl- conductance was found in alpha2M-labeled endosomes isolated from hepatocytes of wild-type versus ClC-3 null mice. In contrast, Golgi acidification was not impaired in ClC-3-deficient hepatocytes. In transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing ClC-3A, endosomal acidification and [Cl-] accumulation were enhanced. [Cl-] in alpha2M-labeled endosomes was 42 mM (control) versus 53 mM (ClC-3A) at 45 min, with corresponding pH 5.8 versus 5.2; [Cl-] in Tf-labeled endosomes at 15 min was 37 mM (control) versus 49 mM (ClC-3A) with pH 6.3 versus 5. 9. Our results provide direct evidence for involvement of ClC-3 in endosomal acidification by Cl- shunting of the interior-positive membrane potential created by the vacuolar H+ pump.[1]


  1. ClC-3 chloride channels facilitate endosomal acidification and chloride accumulation. Hara-Chikuma, M., Yang, B., Sonawane, N.D., Sasaki, S., Uchida, S., Verkman, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities