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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Microbial hydroxylation of bufalin by Cunninghamella blakesleana and Mucor spinosus.

The microbial transformation of a cytotoxic bufadienolide, bufalin (1), was carried out using two strains of filamentous fungi. Cunninghamella blakesleana catalyzed the specific 12alpha-hydroxylation of bufalin and produced 12alpha-hydroxybufalin (2) and 7beta,12alpha-dihydroxybufalin (3) as the major metabolites, together with 7beta-hydroxybufalin (4) and 12beta-hydroxybufalin (5) in low yields. Two minor products were isolated from the culture broth of Mucor spinosus and were identified as 7beta,15alpha-dihydroxybufalin (6) and 5beta,7beta-dihydroxybufalin (7), respectively. Metabolites 2, 3, 6, and 7 are new compounds, and their structures were fully characterized by NMR and MS spectroscopy.[1]


  1. Microbial hydroxylation of bufalin by Cunninghamella blakesleana and Mucor spinosus. Ye, M., Han, J., Tu, G., An, D., Guo, D. J. Nat. Prod. (2005) [Pubmed]
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