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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Mucor

  • The catalytic domains of STX-I and STX-II showed high sequence homology to several xylanases which belong to families F and G, respectively, and that of STX-III showed striking homology with an acetyl xylan esterase from S. lividans, nodulation proteins of Rhizobium sp., and chitin deacetylase of Mucor rouxii [1].
  • However, strains of Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Fusarium sp., Mucor racemosus, and an actinomycete were found to transform metolachlor [2].
  • Using functional analyses in Escherichia coli and Mucor circinelloides, it has been shown that a single M. circinelloides gene (carRP) codes for a protein with two different enzymatic activities, lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase, which are encoded by independent genes in organisms other than fungi [3].
  • Pyridazomycin, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces violaceoniger sp. griseofuscus (strain Tü 2557), was detected in a selective screening against Mucor hiemalis (Tü 179/180) [4].
  • Mucormycosis is confirmed on routine hematoxylin and eosin stains by the identification of tissue invasion by the broad, aseptate mucor fungi [5].

High impact information on Mucor


Chemical compound and disease context of Mucor


Biological context of Mucor


Anatomical context of Mucor


Associations of Mucor with chemical compounds

  • Because of their intrinsic low buoyant density, chitosomes can be separated from crude cell homogenates (1000 g or 35,000 g supernatants) of Mucor rouxii by isopycnic sedimentation in sucrose density gradients [23].
  • Cloning and sequencing of a gene for Mucor rennin, an aspartate protease from Mucor pusillus [24].
  • However, residue 303, which is generally conserved as an aspartate, is changed to an asparagine in mucor pusillus pepsin, possibly influencing pH optimum [25].
  • Sexual differentiation in Mucor: Trisporic acid response mutants and mutants blocked in zygospore development [26].
  • Changing pattern of cyclic AMP-binding proteins during germination of Mucor racemosus sporangiospores [27].

Gene context of Mucor

  • Based on this and on the fact that the fragment weakly complements a leu1 auxotroph of S. cerevisiae, we concluded that the Mucor leu gene encodes alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-IPM) isomerase and designated it leuA+ accordingly [28].
  • Human single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator without an N-glycosylation site (scu-PA-Q302) was produced in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris using the shortened prepeptide sequence of a fungal aspartic proteinase, Mucor pusillus rennin (MPR) [29].
  • Detection of NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities in YR-1 strain of Mucor circinelloides, a potential bioremediator of petroleum contaminated soils [30].
  • The proteins studied in this way were hen egg white lysozyme, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, bovine gamma-II crystallin, human serum amyloid P component, Endothia parasitica pepsin and Mucor pusillus pepsin [31].
  • Purification and properties of two isozymes of pyruvate kinase from Mucor racemosus [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mucor

  • Sequence analysis of the EF-1 alpha gene family of Mucor racemosus [33].
  • Three-dimensional structural and sequence alignments of RMP with other aspartic proteinases show that RMP is most structurally homologous to that of Mucor pusillus (MPP), and differs from other fungal enzymes as much as it does from the mammalian enzymes [34].
  • The amino acid residues serine at position 213 (S213) and lysine at position 218 (K218), which are present in close proximity to the histidine-rich motif II of Mucor rouxii fatty acid Delta(6)-desaturase isoform II, were targeted for studying structure-function relationships using site-directed mutagenesis [35].
  • Levels of protein kinase A (PKA) subunits and of cAMP have been measured during aerobic germination of the sporangiospores of the dimorphic fungus Mucor rouxii; further, the holoenzyme and its catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits have been visualized through sucrose gradient centrifugation [36].
  • Cell-free extracts with high 14 alpha-hydroxylase activity were prepared from induced vegetative cell cultures of Mucor piriformis by grinding in potassium phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 8.0) containing glucose (0.25 M), KCl (1 mM), glutathione (1.0 mM) and glycerol (10%) [37].


  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of genes encoding xylanases and acetyl xylan esterase from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520. Tsujibo, H., Ohtsuki, T., Iio, T., Yamazaki, I., Miyamoto, K., Sugiyama, M., Inamori, Y. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Microorganisms capable of metabolizing the herbicide metolachlor. Saxena, A., Zhang, R.W., Bollag, J.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. A bifunctional enzyme with lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities is encoded by the carRP gene of Mucor circinelloides. Velayos, A., Eslava, A.P., Iturriaga, E.A. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolic products of microorganisms. 243. Pyridazomycin, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces violaceoniger. Grote, R., Chen, Y., Zeeck, A., Chen, Z.X., Zähner, H., Mischnick-Lübbecke, P., König, W.A. J. Antibiot. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Mucormycosis in a patient with sarcoidosis. Alloway, J.A., Buchsbaum, R.M., Filipov, P.T., Reynolds, B.N., Day, J.A. Sarcoidosis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Bioconversion of chitin to chitosan: purification and characterization of chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii. Kafetzopoulos, D., Martinou, A., Bouriotis, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Methylation of elongation factor 1 alpha from the fungus Mucor. Hiatt, W.R., Garcia, R., Merrick, W.C., Sypherd, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of amphotericin B, nystatin, and other polyene antibiotics on chitin synthase. Rast, D.M., Bartnicki-Garcia, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of three genes for elongation factor 1 alpha during morphogenesis of Mucor racemosus. Linz, J.E., Sypherd, P.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. 3-O-methylation of mannose residues. A novel reaction in the processing of N-linked oligosaccharides occurring in Mucor rouxii. Lederkremer, G.Z., Parodi, A.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Heterologous expression of astaxanthin biosynthesis genes in Mucor circinelloides. Papp, T., Velayos, A., Bartók, T., Eslava, A.P., Vágvölgyi, C., Iturriaga, E.A. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Biosynthesis of pyridoxine: origin of the nitrogen atom of pyridoxine in microorganisms. Tanaka, K., Tazuya, K., Yamada, K., Kumaoka, H. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Nonaqueous biocatalytic synthesis of new cytotoxic doxorubicin derivatives: exploiting unexpected differences in the regioselectivity of salt-activated and solubilized subtilisin. Altreuter, D.H., Dordick, J.S., Clark, D.S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. A Mucor pusillus mutant defective in asparagine-linked glycosylation. Murakami, K., Aikawa, J., Wada, M., Horinouchi, S., Beppu, T. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Kinetic study of esterification by immobilized lipase in n-hexane. Chulalaksananukul, W., Condoret, J.S., Delorme, P., Willemot, R.M. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Physiological control of phosphorylation ribosomal protein S6 in Mucor racemosus. Larsen, A., Sypherd, P.S. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning and structure of the mono- and diacylglycerol lipase-encoding gene from Penicillium camembertii U-150. Yamaguchi, S., Mase, T., Takeuchi, K. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Glucosylation of glycoproteins by mammalian, plant, fungal, and trypanosomatid protozoa microsomal membranes. Trombetta, S.E., Bosch, M., Parodi, A.J. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of an aspartic proteinase of Mucor pusillus expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Murakami, K., Aikawa, J., Horinouchi, S., Beppu, T. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Oral supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid extracted from Mucor circinelloides improves the deformability of red blood cells in hemodialysis patients. Iijima, S., Otsuka, F., Kikuchi, H., Yamada, K., Nakajima, T., Yahiro, K., Kondo, A. Nephron (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The inhibitory protein of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii is a chitinase. Lopez-Romero, E., Ruiz-Herrera, J., Bartnicki-Garcia, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Controllable regioselective enzymatic synthesis of polymerizable 5'-O-vinyl- and 3'-O-vinyl-nucleoside analogues in acetone. Sun, X.F., Wang, N., Wu, Q., Lin, X.F. Biotechnol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Unexpected destruction of chitosomal chitin synthetase by an endogenous protease during sucrose density gradient purification. Kamada, T., Bracker, C.E., Lippman, E., Bartnicki-Garcia, S. J. Cell. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Cloning and sequencing of a gene for Mucor rennin, an aspartate protease from Mucor pusillus. Tonouchi, N., Shoun, H., Uozumi, T., Beppu, T. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. X-ray analyses of aspartic proteinases. V. Structure and refinement at 2.0 A resolution of the aspartic proteinase from Mucor pusillus. Newman, M., Watson, F., Roychowdhury, P., Jones, H., Badasso, M., Cleasby, A., Wood, S.P., Tickle, I.J., Blundell, T.L. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Sexual differentiation in Mucor: Trisporic acid response mutants and mutants blocked in zygospore development. Wurtz, T., Jockusch, H. Dev. Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Changing pattern of cyclic AMP-binding proteins during germination of Mucor racemosus sporangiospores. Orlowski, M. Biochem. J. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of a leuA gene and an ARS element from Mucor circinelloides. Roncero, M.I., Jepsen, L.P., Strøman, P., van Heeswijck, R. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Secretion of a variant of human single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator without an N-glycosylation site in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris and characterization of the secreted product. Tsujikawa, M., Okabayashi, K., Morita, M., Tanabe, T. Yeast (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Detection of NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities in YR-1 strain of Mucor circinelloides, a potential bioremediator of petroleum contaminated soils. Durón-Castellanos, A., Zazueta-Novoa, V., Silva-Jiménez, H., Alvarado-Caudillo, Y., Peña Cabrera, E., Zazueta-Sandoval, R. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. A comparison of infrared spectra of proteins in solution and crystalline forms. Hadden, J.M., Chapman, D., Lee, D.C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Purification and properties of two isozymes of pyruvate kinase from Mucor racemosus. Hohn, T.M., Paznokas, J.L. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Sequence analysis of the EF-1 alpha gene family of Mucor racemosus. Sundstrom, P., Lira, L.M., Choi, D., Linz, J.E., Sypherd, P.S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Crystal structure of the aspartic proteinase from Rhizomucor miehei at 2.15 A resolution. Yang, J., Teplyakov, A., Quail, J.W. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted mutagenesis of a fatty acid Delta6-desaturase from Mucor rouxii: role of amino acid residues adjacent to histidine-rich motif II. Na-Ranong, S., Laoteng, K., Kittakoop, P., Tanticharoen, M., Cheevadhanarak, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Regulation of protein kinase A subunits during germination of Mucor rouxii sporangiospores. Rossi, S., Moreno, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Studies on the 14 alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone in Mucor piriformis. Madyastha, K.M., Joseph, T. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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