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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mitochondrial Dok-4 recruits Src kinase and regulates NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells.

The downstream of kinase (Dok) family of adapter proteins consists of at least five members structurally characterized by an NH2-terminal tandem of conserved pleckstrin homology and phosphotyrosine binding domains linked to a unique COOH-terminal region. To determine the role of the novel adapter protein Dok-4 in endothelial cells, we first investigated the cell localization of Dok-4. Most surprisingly, immunofluorescence microscopy, cell fractionation studies, and studies with enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras showed that wild type Dok-4 (Dok-4-WT) specifically localized in mitochondria. An NH2-terminal deletion mutant of Dok-4 (Dok-4-(deltaN11-29)), which lacks the mitochondrial targeting sequence, could not accumulate in mitochondria. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction of c-Src with Dok-4-WT in endothelial cells. Most interestingly, overexpression of Dok-4-WT, but not Dok-4-(deltaN1-99), increased mitochondrial c-Src expression, whereas knock-down of endogenous Dok-4 with a small interfering RNA vector greatly inhibited mitochondrial localization of c-Src, suggesting a unique function for Dok-4 as an anchoring protein for c-Src in mitochondria. Dok-4-WT significantly decreased 39-kDa subunit complex I expression. PP2, a specific Src kinase inhibitor, prevented the Dok-4-mediated complex I decrease, suggesting the involvement of Src kinase in regulation of complex I expression. Dok-4-WT enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, supporting the functional relevance of a Dok-4-Src-complex I/ROS signaling pathway in mitochondria. Finally, Dok-4 enhanced TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation, whereas this was inhibited by transfection with Dok-4 small interfering RNA. In addition, Dok-4-induced NF-kappaB activation was also inhibited by transfection of a dominant negative form of c-Src. These data suggest a role for mitochondrial Dok-4 as an anchoring molecule for the tyrosine kinase c-Src, and in turn as a regulator of TNF-alpha-mediated ROS production and NF-kappaB activation.[1]


  1. Mitochondrial Dok-4 recruits Src kinase and regulates NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells. Itoh, S., Lemay, S., Osawa, M., Che, W., Duan, Y., Tompkins, A., Brookes, P.S., Sheu, S.S., Abe, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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