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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mucosal adaptation to enteral nutrients is dependent on the physiologic actions of glucagon-like peptide-2 in mice.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Our understanding of the intestinotropic actions of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)(1-33) is based on pharmacologic studies involving exogenous administration. However, the physiologic role of GLP-2 in mucosal growth and adaptation to nutritional stimulation remains poorly understood. METHODS: The properties of GLP-2(3-33), a GLP-2(1-33) metabolite, were determined in baby-hamster kidney cells transfected with the mouse GLP-2 receptor complementary DNA and in isolated murine intestinal muscle strips. To investigate the role of endogenous GLP-2(1-33) in gut adaptation, GLP-2(3-33) was administered to mice that were re-fed for 24 hours after 24 hours of fasting, and the small intestine was analyzed. GLP-2(3-33) also was injected into rats for analysis of circulating GLP-2(1-33) levels. RESULTS: GLP-2(3-33) antagonized the actions of GLP-2(1-33) in vitro and ex vivo. Fasting mice exhibited small intestinal atrophy (37% +/- 1% decrease in small intestinal weight, 19% +/- 2% decrease in crypt-villus height, and 99% +/- 35% increase in villus apoptosis, P < .05-.01). Adaptive growth in re-fed mice restored all these parameters, as well as crypt-cell proliferation, to normal control levels (P < .05 vs. fasting); these adaptive changes were prevented partially or completely by co-administration of GLP-2(3-33) to refeeding mice (by 32% +/- 19% to 103% +/- 15%, P < .05-.01 vs re-fed mice). Exogenous GLP-2(3-33) did not affect endogenous GLP-2(1-33) levels. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that endogenous GLP-2 regulates the intestinotropic response in re-fed mice through modulation of crypt-cell proliferation and villus apoptosis. GLP-2 is therefore a physiologic regulator of the dynamic adaptation of the gut mucosal epithelium in response to luminal nutrients.[1]


  1. Mucosal adaptation to enteral nutrients is dependent on the physiologic actions of glucagon-like peptide-2 in mice. Shin, E.D., Estall, J.L., Izzo, A., Drucker, D.J., Brubaker, P.L. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
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