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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Epithelium

  • The introduction of a normal copy of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene into the airway epithelium through gene transfer is an attractive approach to correcting the underlying defects in patients with cystic fibrosis [1].
  • Renal failure results from severe polycystic kidney disease characterized by dilated proximal and distal tubular segments and hyperproliferation of epithelium and interstitium. bcl-2-/-mice turn gray with the second hair follicle cycle, implicating a defect in redox-regulated melanin synthesis [2].
  • The ability of LMP to inhibit terminal differentiation indicates a mechanism whereby EBV infection of squamous epithelium could contribute to the multi-step pathogenesis of NPC [3].
  • Here we provide evidence that uropathogenic E. coli might use host C3 to invade the renal epithelium and that local complement production is sufficient for the bacteria to achieve this effect [4].
  • The nephritogenic antigen of Heymann's nephritis (HN), gp330, was previously demonstrated (4-9) to be a resident glycoprotein of coated pits in the glomerular and proximal tubule epithelium of rats, and anti-gp330 IgG given intravenously was found to form IDs in glomeruli (passive HN) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Epithelium

  • OBJECTIVES: Individual differences in proportion of stroma, epithelium, and luminal space components prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may explain the differences in clinical outcome of the patients treated with alpha-reductase inhibitors or alpha-blocking agents and other alternative treatments [6].
  • To improve our understanding of the putative regenerative/repair mechanism(s) in the bronchiolar epithelium, we measured the levels of the Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) in BAL fluid in healthy volunteers following smoking cessation [7].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cut sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded material of histologically normal epithelium adjacent to HNSCC from 25 patients who smoke excessively and abuse alcohol, and 17 HNSCC patients who do not abuse tobacco and alcohol were compared with cut sections of normal epithelium from 27 control individuals [8].
  • In human gastric epithelium also, H. pylori infection was associated with reduced Id and E2A expression [9].
  • Alterations in the levels of a high molecular-weight glycoprotein and a 30 k dalton protein in the rat lingual epithelium became significant following 60 days of alcohol consumption [10].

High impact information on Epithelium

  • In others, localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+) [11].
  • Endocrine cells of the gastric epithelium secrete biologically active peptides and small messenger molecules such as histamine, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid [12].
  • Passive diffusion of intestinal HCO3- into the lumen is particularly important when there is superficial damage resulting in increased leakiness of the mucosal epithelium [13].
  • In fos-1 mutants, the gonadal anchor cell extends cellular processes normally toward vulval cells, but these processes fail to remove the basement membranes separating the gonad from the vulval epithelium. fos-1 is expressed in the anchor cell and controls invasion cell autonomously [14].
  • Here we show that Hes1 is expressed in the extrahepatic biliary epithelium throughout development and that Hes1-deficient mice have gallbladder agenesis and severe hypoplasia of extrahepatic bile ducts [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Epithelium


Biological context of Epithelium


Anatomical context of Epithelium

  • However, the percentage of epithelial cells transfected by the vector was very low (< 1 percent), and measurement of PD across the epithelium revealed no significant restoration of chloride transport or normalization of sodium transport [1].
  • Our studies indicate the presence of a new reciprocal signaling loop between the ureteric bud epithelium and the stromal mesenchyme, dependent on Ret and vitamin A. In the first part of the loop, vitamin-A-dependent signals secreted by stromal cells control Ret expression in the ureteric bud [26].
  • CFTR expression in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the uterus is regulated during the oestrous cycle and is maximal at pro-oestrus [27].
  • To determine the contribution of p53 loss to tumor progression, we have induced abnormal proliferation in the brain choroid plexus epithelium of transgenic mice using a SV40 T antigen fragment that perturbs pRB family function but does not affect p53 function [28].
  • COCH message, found at high levels in human cochlear and vestibular organs, occurs in the chicken inner ear in the regions of the auditory and vestibular nerve fibres, the neural and abneural limbs adjacent to the cochlear sensory epithelium and the stroma of the crista ampullaris of the vestibular labyrinth [29].

Associations of Epithelium with chemical compounds

  • We hypothesized that this condition is caused by the absence of luminal short-chain fatty acids, the preferred metabolic substrates of colonic epithelium [30].
  • Thus, steroid-induced proliferation of mammary epithelium during pregnancy may be driven through cyclin D1 [31].
  • Regression of Barrett's epithelium with omeprazole [32].
  • To test the hypothesis that the reduction in tar and nicotine content of cigarette smoke that began in the 1950s should be reflected by the histologic changes in the bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers, 20, 424 sections taken at autopsy from the bronchial tubes of 445 men (non-lung-cancer deaths) were examined microscopically in random order [33].
  • A particularly intriguing pattern of expression is found in the mature wing imaginal disc, where the PS1 integrin is expressed primarily on the presumptive dorsal wing epithelium, and the PS2 integrin is found almost exclusively on the ventral epithelium [34].

Gene context of Epithelium

  • Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium at the initiation of tooth development [35].
  • Palatal shelf explants from Egfr-/- mice fused, but frequently had residual epithelium in the midline [36].
  • Here we show that genes encoding the receptor protein Notch1 and its ligand, Jagged 2, are expressed in alternating cell types in the developing sensory epithelium [37].
  • These data suggest that PC1 and PC2 contribute to fluid-flow sensation by the primary cilium in renal epithelium and that they both function in the same mechanotransduction pathway [38].
  • In absence of Hlxb9 expression, the dorsal region of the gut epithelium fails to initiate a pancreatic differentiation program [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Epithelium


  1. A controlled study of adenoviral-vector-mediated gene transfer in the nasal epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis. Knowles, M.R., Hohneker, K.W., Zhou, Z., Olsen, J.C., Noah, T.L., Hu, P.C., Leigh, M.W., Engelhardt, J.F., Edwards, L.J., Jones, K.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Bcl-2-deficient mice demonstrate fulminant lymphoid apoptosis, polycystic kidneys, and hypopigmented hair. Veis, D.J., Sorenson, C.M., Shutter, J.R., Korsmeyer, S.J. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein inhibits human epithelial cell differentiation. Dawson, C.W., Rickinson, A.B., Young, L.S. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Epithelial secretion of C3 promotes colonization of the upper urinary tract by Escherichia coli. Springall, T., Sheerin, N.S., Abe, K., Holers, V.M., Wan, H., Sacks, S.H. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Initial events in the formation of immune deposits in passive Heymann nephritis. gp330-anti-gp330 immune complexes form in epithelial coated pits and rapidly become attached to the glomerular basement membrane. Kerjaschki, D., Miettinen, A., Farquhar, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Is one single prostate biopsy helpful for choosing a medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia? A quantitative computerized morphometric study. Zlota, A., Sattar, A.A., Wespes, E., Noel, J.C., Schulman, C.C. Urology (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Clara cell secretory protein. Levels in BAL fluid after smoking cessation. Andersson, O., Cassel, T.N., Sköld, C.M., Eklund, A., Lund, J., Nord, M. Chest (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in normal epithelium adjacent to head and neck carcinomas independent of tobacco and alcohol abuse. van Oijen, M.G., Rijksen, G., ten Broek, F.W., Slootweg, P.J. Oral diseases. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Helicobacter pylori regulates the expression of inhibitors of DNA binding (Id) proteins by gastric epithelial cells. Manzo, B.A., Crabtree, J.E., Fiona Campbell, M., Tweedle, D., Potten, C.S., Bajaj-Elliott, M., Sanderson, I.R., Wilson, J.W. Microbes Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. A cross-sectional study of the effects of alcohol on the protein profile of rat lingual epithelium. Graham, G.J., Rennie, J.S. Arch. Oral Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling. Brown, E.M., MacLeod, R.J. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Gastric endocrine cells: gene expression, processing, and targeting of active products. Dockray, G.J., Varro, A., Dimaline, R. Physiol. Rev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Gastroduodenal mucosal protection. Allen, A., Flemström, G., Garner, A., Kivilaakso, E. Physiol. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. FOS-1 promotes basement-membrane removal during anchor-cell invasion in C. elegans. Sherwood, D.R., Butler, J.A., Kramer, J.M., Sternberg, P.W. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Conversion of biliary system to pancreatic tissue in Hes1-deficient mice. Sumazaki, R., Shiojiri, N., Isoyama, S., Masu, M., Keino-Masu, K., Osawa, M., Nakauchi, H., Kageyama, R., Matsui, A. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Histologic and histochemical preneoplastic changes in the bladder mucosae of dogs given 2-naphthylamine. Rdomski, J.L., Krischer, C., Krischer, K.N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Augmented bicarbonate reabsorption by both the proximal and distal nephron maintains chloride-deplete metabolic alkalosis in rats. Wesson, D.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Selective ablation of immature blood vessels in established human tumors follows vascular endothelial growth factor withdrawal. Benjamin, L.E., Golijanin, D., Itin, A., Pode, D., Keshet, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypertension in mice lacking 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Kotelevtsev, Y., Brown, R.W., Fleming, S., Kenyon, C., Edwards, C.R., Seckl, J.R., Mullins, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Potentiation by ethanol consumption of tracheal squamous metaplasia caused by vitamin A deficiency in rats. Mak, K.M., Leo, M.A., Lieber, C.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Administration of an adenovirus containing the human CFTR cDNA to the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. Crystal, R.G., McElvaney, N.G., Rosenfeld, M.A., Chu, C.S., Mastrangeli, A., Hay, J.G., Brody, S.L., Jaffe, H.A., Eissa, N.T., Danel, C. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Single-step induction of mammary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice bearing the activated c-neu oncogene. Muller, W.J., Sinn, E., Pattengale, P.K., Wallace, R., Leder, P. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction across germ layers in Drosophila mediated by a genetic cascade. Immerglück, K., Lawrence, P.A., Bienz, M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor translocates pneumococci across human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Zhang, J.R., Mostov, K.E., Lamm, M.E., Nanno, M., Shimida, S., Ohwaki, M., Tuomanen, E. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Downregulation of bactericidal peptides in enteric infections: a novel immune escape mechanism with bacterial DNA as a potential regulator. Islam, D., Bandholtz, L., Nilsson, J., Wigzell, H., Christensson, B., Agerberth, B., Gudmundsson, G. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Vitamin A controls epithelial/mesenchymal interactions through Ret expression. Batourina, E., Gim, S., Bello, N., Shy, M., Clagett-Dame, M., Srinivas, S., Costantini, F., Mendelsohn, C. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. CFTR expression is regulated during both the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the oestrous cycle of rodents. Trezise, A.E., Linder, C.C., Grieger, D., Thompson, E.W., Meunier, H., Griswold, M.D., Buchwald, M. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. p53-dependent apoptosis suppresses tumor growth and progression in vivo. Symonds, H., Krall, L., Remington, L., Saenz-Robles, M., Lowe, S., Jacks, T., Van Dyke, T. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Mutations in a novel cochlear gene cause DFNA9, a human nonsyndromic deafness with vestibular dysfunction. Robertson, N.G., Lu, L., Heller, S., Merchant, S.N., Eavey, R.D., McKenna, M., Nadol, J.B., Miyamoto, R.T., Linthicum, F.H., Lubianca Neto, J.F., Hudspeth, A.J., Seidman, C.E., Morton, C.C., Seidman, J.G. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Treatment of diversion colitis with short-chain-fatty acid irrigation. Harig, J.M., Soergel, K.H., Komorowski, R.A., Wood, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Cyclin D1 provides a link between development and oncogenesis in the retina and breast. Sicinski, P., Donaher, J.L., Parker, S.B., Li, T., Fazeli, A., Gardner, H., Haslam, S.Z., Bronson, R.T., Elledge, S.J., Weinberg, R.A. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Regression of Barrett's epithelium with omeprazole. Deviere, J., Buset, M., Dumonceau, J.M., Rickaert, F., Cremer, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Changes in bronchial epithelium in relation to cigarette smoking, 1955-1960 vs. 1970-1977. Auerbach, O., Hammond, E.C., Garfinkel, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  34. Requirement for integrins during Drosophila wing development. Brower, D.L., Jaffe, S.M. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development. Vainio, S., Karavanova, I., Jowett, A., Thesleff, I. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Epidermal growth factor receptor function is necessary for normal craniofacial development and palate closure. Miettinen, P.J., Chin, J.R., Shum, L., Slavkin, H.C., Shuler, C.F., Derynck, R., Werb, Z. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Notch signalling pathway mediates hair cell development in mammalian cochlea. Lanford, P.J., Lan, Y., Jiang, R., Lindsell, C., Weinmaster, G., Gridley, T., Kelley, M.W. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Polycystins 1 and 2 mediate mechanosensation in the primary cilium of kidney cells. Nauli, S.M., Alenghat, F.J., Luo, Y., Williams, E., Vassilev, P., Li, X., Elia, A.E., Lu, W., Brown, E.M., Quinn, S.J., Ingber, D.E., Zhou, J. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Selective agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in mice lacking homeobox gene Hlxb9. Li, H., Arber, S., Jessell, T.M., Edlund, H. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Mutations in the gene encoding tight junction claudin-14 cause autosomal recessive deafness DFNB29. Wilcox, E.R., Burton, Q.L., Naz, S., Riazuddin, S., Smith, T.N., Ploplis, B., Belyantseva, I., Ben-Yosef, T., Liburd, N.A., Morell, R.J., Kachar, B., Wu, D.K., Griffith, A.J., Riazuddin, S., Friedman, T.B. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Gene therapy in a xenograft model of cystic fibrosis lung corrects chloride transport more effectively than the sodium defect. Goldman, M.J., Yang, Y., Wilson, J.M. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. Thymic epithelium and the induction of transplantation tolerance in nude mice. Jordan, R.K., Robinson, J.H., Hopkinson, N.A., House, K.C., Bentley, A.L. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  43. An apical-membrane chloride channel in human tracheal epithelium. Welsh, M.J. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  44. Localization of distinct Peyer's patch dendritic cell subsets and their recruitment by chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha, MIP-3beta, and secondary lymphoid organ chemokine. Iwasaki, A., Kelsall, B.L. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
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